Vincent Willem van Gogh (Zundert 1853 – 30 March , Auvers-sur-Oise29 July 1890) was a Dutch painter. His work belongs to the post impressionism, an art movement that succeeded the 19th-century Impressionism . Van Gogh's influence on ExpressionismFauvism and the early abstraction was enormous and can be seen in many other aspects of twentieth-century art. The Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam is dedicated to the work of van Gogh and his contemporaries.

Van Gogh is now seen as one of the great painters of the 19th century. This recognition came late. There was probably only one painting during his lifetime sold[citation needed]the Red vineyard (Pushkin museum in Moscow). Anna Boch, a Belgian artist and sister of his friend Eugène Boch bought it for 400 then frank at the exhibition ofLes XX in Brussels in 1890, a few months before Van Gogh's death.

There were only three years between his morose the potato eaters (1885) and the colour explosion in the southern Arles (1888). Van Gogh produced all his work in just ten years, before he began to suffer from a nerve disease and, one assumes, to General committed suicide . His fame grew after his death fast.

Content[edit | edit source]

[hide]*1 Biography

Biography[edit | edit source]

Young years[edit | edit source]

[1][2]Family Van Gogh[3][4]Vincent van Gogh, 1866[5][6]Theo van Gogh in 1888

Vincent was born in the village of Zundert, a village near the Belgian border, as a son of the Pastor Theodorus van Gogh and Anna Cornelia Carbentus. Exactly a year before his birth even though they had given birth to a son who they named Vincent, although he was stillborn. The couple got a total of three girls and three boys, one of whom isTheo, who was born four years after Vincent. Vincent as a child was a taciturn, somewhat introspective boy. At the age of eight he went to the village school, but the next year, he became school's already achieved. Instead, he got home-schooling. Per 1 October 1864 Vincent went to the boarding school of Jan Provily in Zevenbergen where he stayed for two years. On september 15, 1866 , he was enrolled at the Rijks HBS King Willem II Tilburg to located in the former Palace of King William II and the current Palace-City Hallof Tilburg. In the second year he was removed from school, possibly because his father could not pay the school.

At the age of 16 became the youngest clerk at Hague Vincent branch of the art dealer Goupil & Cie on the Place. Originally this was the art trade by his uncle Vincent van Gogh, which then had become partner of the art dealer Goupil in Paris. In 1872 Vincent began to correspond with his younger brother Theo. This arrived by 1 January 1873also employed by Goupil & Cie, to Brusselsin the Branch Office. In June of that year Vincent was placed in the Branch Office to London . He fell in love with the daughter of his landlady, but she was already engaged to another boarder and Vincent made a depressive period.

In 1873 he was short time working at the headquarters in Paris, and then again at the branch office in London. Vincent worked again short time In 1874 at the head office. His depression continued and by april 1, 1876 , he was fired. His uncle Vincent was deeply disappointed in his nephew and pulled his hands off him. Vincent was a teacher inRamsgate, and then a teacher and help preacher in Isleworth. On 4 november he held his first sermon.

From January 1877 he was again in Netherlands. He worked a short time in a bookstore to Dordrecht and he moved to Amsterdam in May to prepare for the State exam, that would provide him access to the study theology. He was staying with his uncle Johannes van Gogh, who was commander of the Amsterdam naval dockyard. Vincent hooked in1878 , without State examination to have done, inter alia due to his disinterest in the Latin and Greek language. He followed a short training at a school in Laeken near Brussels missionaries. In december 1878 , he was sent to the Borinage , where he appeared under the miners worked as a preacher.

During this period he started his artist vocation to follow. He made a lot of expressive sketches and drawings, which he was inspired by masters such as Rembrandt and Millet.In 1880 he became friends with the young painter Anthon van Rappard. He now also got money from his younger brother Theo. now first started his explosive but dramatic Odyssey, which hardly would last ten years. To the friendship with Van Rappard came after an unfortunate misunderstanding an end, after which another six months Vincent spent in Brussels.

During the next five years he lived with his parents, who by now were via Helvoirt moved to Etten . During this period he continued to focus on the art and made numerous – getting better executed – drawings and paintings. Initially he was very drawn to by the plan for magazines to draw and make money that way and it took long before he released this ideal.

Then he lived independently in the Hagueto Nuenen, and. He struggled in the Hague with a problematic relationship with ' James ', which in reality Christine Hoornik was called.It was a poor woman with an alcohol problem and a past as a prostitute. She bore a son in 1882 , but there are never found evidence that Vincent was the father. The relationship soon deteriorated and Sien picked up her old job of prostitute again.

Vincent went end 1881 at the age of 28 for about three weeks at his nephew by marriage Anton Mauve (who was married to his cousin Jet Carbentus) Hague in his studio work.Through him, he came into contact with the work of among others, Jacob and Matthijs Maris WeissenbruchMesdagBreitner and of Israel. Mauve Vincent gave painting lessons. Its influence on Vincent was larger than usually assumed. Themes such as Saka, potato eaters and wood sellers, he of Mauve retrieved.

By his relationship with Sien Hoornik Vincent came into conflict with Mauve and Tabu, his former chef at Goupil. When Anton Mauve on 5 February 1888 at the age of less than fifty died suddenly to Arnhem , Vincent in Arles was wearing his Souvenir de Mauve, pink flowering peach trees, to him.

Drenthe[edit | edit source]

[7][8]Drawbridge in Nieuw-Amsterdam (1883)

In 1883 he broke off the relationship with Sien and departed from the Hague to Drenthe, where he arrived on 11 september to Hoogeveen. This choice was motivated by his brother Theo who at the Paris Salon of 1882 a landscape painting by the German painter Max Liebermann saw. Liebermann visited each year during the summer to Drenthe (Zweeloo) painting. Also Anton Mauve (married to a cousin of his mother) and his painting and Anthon van Rappard study friend advised him to visit Drenthe. Theo financed the trip by train from station Hollands Spoor (Den Haag) to Hoogeveen. Van Gogh spent 18 days at host Albertus Hartsuiker to Hoogeveen. In this period he made excursions in the area and dedicated himself to painting landscapes and figures. On 2 October of that year he left per trekschuit to Nieuw-Amsterdam. There he took up residence in the dormitory by Hendrik Scholte. This House is restored in 2002: the Museum ' Van Gogh House ' recalls Van Gogh's stay in Drenthe.

Nuenen[edit | edit source]

[9][10]The potato eaters (1885)

On 4 december 1883 he left again to Hoogeveen to the next day to take the train to his parents in Nuenen. In his paintings from this period laid the hard peasant life often fixed Vincent; to this time reminds the loom, among other Two women farmers, spittend and the seven images of The Roosdonckwindmill. 1885at the end of april, a month after the unexpected death of his father, he created his first, however bleak, but extremely expressive masterpiece the potato eaters. In november of the same year Van Gogh moved toAntwerp. Several drawings and paintings he left with his family, are lost when his mother and sister Willemien beginning 1886 moved to Breda.

Antwerp and Academy[edit | edit source]

Arrived in Antwerp he moved into a small room. In January he let register at the Academy. He was 32 years. Despite his admiration for the coloration and the brushwork of Peter Paul Rubens , he held the three months full: at the hands of Eugène Siberdt, a teacher of the course "drawing figure to life", he was exhausted and overworked, Siberdt and sent him away. Came In this time Van Gogh impressed the Japanese prints, which he eagerly went collecting.

In Antwerp was Vincent became ill and had lost some teeth. In addition, there was found with him syphilis .

Paris[edit | edit source]

[11][12]Portrait of père Tanguy, 1887

In March 1886, he left Belgium unexpectedly. He went to live with Theo in Paris, Rue Lepic 54 in Montmartre, where he got his own Studio. Here he worked further to his artistic breakthrough. He became friends with Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Emile Bernard, while he admired flower still lifes by Adolphe Monticelli, the romantic Eugene Delacroixand the allegorical Pierre Puvis de Chavannes.

More important still was his contact with the French Impressionism, ten years after the creation. The series "Salons des Impressionistes" were over and Paul Signac, with whom he often went painting in Asnières, struggled as post-impressionist with the divisionismGeorges SeuratPaul GauguinCamille Pissarro Armand Guillaumin and belonged to his acquaintances.

The relationship between Vincent and Theo came under some time pressure when it turned out that Vincent quarreled constantly with all and sundry. Only at the end of Vincent's at snapped the relationship back on and got the brothers display a very intimate. Also during this period, Vincent worked tirelessly hard at the expense of his health.

Arles[edit | edit source]

Parisian life was very busy for the weakening Van Gogh, and often also grey and cold. He was 34 years old when he left Paris in February 1888. He went to Arles in the South of France in the Camargue. It was, however, equally cold: it froze there and there was snow.

Under the Sun of noon Vincent van Gogh made his most startling French work in a feverish pace, sometimes several in one day. It, however, were his last two years of life, with dramatic crises. He wanted to discover the Mediterranean Sea and drew for five days to the nearby Les-Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, where he made sketches and drawings of the area continuously. Back in Arles, he released his famous "fishing boats on the beach" on the canvas. Kenschetsende are also portraits were created in this period, as of the article, by Eugène Boch and Roulin.

[13][14]Café terrace at night===Arguing with Gauguin===

He hired the "Yellow House", painted the impressive "nachtcafé" and processed exceptional motives of cypress trees, vineyard and harvest. On October 23, 1888 Paul Gauguincame at him staying, but scarcely two months later followed the rupture, during a high spiking arguing about the local café bazin. In addition, they were in love with her so that she had painted her many times. Van Gogh with his razor to Gauguin, still could just defend himself, but Van Gogh cut off his own ear lobe accidentally. Others claim that he himself from own strength a piece of his ear cut off and that the tinnitus to which he suffered here the reason was.

Historians Hans Kaufmann and Rita Wildegans the German art, for a period of 10 years examined police reports, witness statements and letters of the two painters. According to Paul Gauguin would have been planning them the Yellow House in Arles after spending two months leave. Van Gogh would give him chasing the angry Street on his run, which would be a hassle and Gauguin who benefited most with his sword, and thus a part of Van Gogh's ear afhieuw.

Then they would have agreed to remain silent about this: Gauguin to avoid criminal prosecution for inflicting injury and Van Gogh to maintain the friendship. Then Van Gogh would have given his earlobe to a prostitute and have gone back home.

The German art scientists find support for their position in the last letter from van Gogh to Gauguin. In it he wrote: "you are silent, I will too." Also in letters to his brother Theo believe they recognize implicit references to the incident. In 2008 they published their findings in a book (see Literature). [1Curator Leo Jansen of the Van Gogh museumshows off their conclusion. The alleged evidence to a large extent pulled out of context. [2]

In January 1889 he was van Gogh went to work again and angrily to repeated versions of "La Berceuse", for which Madame Roulin model sat. Further he painted new variations "sunflowers". However, the local residents were concerned about the "tramp" in the "Yellow House". [3]

Saint-Rémy-de-Provence[edit | edit source]

His brother Theo married in april in Amsterdam with Johanna Gesina Bonger. It went less well with Vincent and he was taken to Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, in the institution Saint-Paul-de-Mausole at the foot of theAlpilles. One even founded a small workshop in, in which he could paint during the increasingly rare moments without nerve crisis. It was the time of the "Irises" and "Lilacs".

The name Van Gogh was meanwhile made it to Belgium and in January 1890 , he was invited at the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels. He took part with five paintings. On this exhibition was "the Red vineyard" bought by Anna Boch.

The nervous breakdowns followed each other on, but Van Gogh continued working and in april showed Theo ten works on the "Salon des Indépendants". Vincent left the setting of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence and traveled to Auvers-sur-Oise, where Doctor Gachet lived. In transit, he visited Theo and his wife in Paris.

Auvers[edit | edit source]

[15][16]Graves of Vincent van Gogh and his brother

In may he came in there and rented an attic room in Auvers to the Ravoux Inn of. Again, he painted portraits, including the famous portrait of Dr. Gachet. The endless yellow cornfields with the dark blue, often whirling heavenly around Auvers were now his repeated motifs.

Brother Theo and his wife Jo came again spend a day with him, he ran in June and another in July to Paris to go to visit them.

Suicide[edit | edit source]

It is generally assumed that Van Gogh himself on 27 July 1890, aged 37, wounded in the chest with a pistol. He wanted to shoot himself through the heart , but made a classic mistake by thinking that the heart is at the height of the linkertepel is. Thereby he died only on 29 July to internal bleeding, with Theo at his side.

The American Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith, art connoisseurs who have done ten years of research to the painter, however, conclude in their biography Van Gogh: The Life[4(October 2011) that Van Gogh might not have committed suicide, but that the deadly shot may were landed during an unclear incident involving two boys were involved. They point out that the firearm has never been found. Although for the time being, still it is assumed to be suicide, can the new scenario from the biography also cannot be ruled out, because the circumstances that led to Van Gogh's death led never quite have been clarified.

Theo also died half a year later. This left a son behind, Vincent Willem, the grandfather of the well-known film-maker and columnist Theo van Gogh. Vincent and his brother Theo are buried in the cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise.

Legacy[edit | edit source]


Young man, cutting grass with a sickle, October 1881


Cabins, september 1883


See list of paintings by Vincent van Gogh for the main article on this topic.

In Netherlands are many of his works on display at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. The Kröller-Müller Museum also in the De Hoge Veluwe National Park in Otterlo possesses a decent collection of Gogh 's.

Foundation Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam[edit | edit source]

On 21 July 1962 , an agreement was signed between the State of the Netherlands and the Vincent van Gogh Foundation. The family Van Gogh wore for 15 million guilders the remaining collection, consisting of 200 paintings by Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin, 400 drawings, and all letters of Vincent, over to the State. This was the basis for Amsterdam's Van Gogh Museum, which was opened 2 June 1973 .

Paintings in possession of the family Van Gogh[edit | edit source]

After the death of her brother-in-law Vincent van Gogh on 29 July 1890 and her husband Theo van Gogh in 1891 Johanna van Gogh-Bonger returned with her son Vincent Willem van Goghand a large number of paintings by Vincent van Gogh regarded as worthless finally back to Netherlands. They settled in Bussum. She began in her living there a pension and made a start to the sale of the work of her brother-in-law.

Her best customers were the art trade by Paul Cassirer in Berlin and art dealer J.H. de Bois (formerly C.M. van Gogh) in Amsterdam to which each 55 paintings or drawings were delivered. Everything was by Johanna beautiful tended in its finances, although by selling a small number of works by Vincent no annotation was held. Also a small number of works donated to family or very good relations.

Apart from the large number of works that Johanna van Gogh possessed, had the following family members Vincent's work in their possession: E.H. Du Quesne-van Gogh ten pieces, Willemien van Gogh seven pieces, Cornelia van Gogh-Carbentus van Gogh-Carbentus three one, Anna and Andries Bonger (brother of Johanna) five pieces. Between 1890 and 1923 were by her 247 Vincent van Gogh's paintings and drawings on the market.


See list of most expensive paintings for prices of van Gogh paintings.

  • [23]

    Bedroom in Arles

  • [24]

    Bridge of Langlois

  • [25]

    Still life with earthen Bowl with potatoes, september 1885

  • [26]

    Still life with basket of potatoes, september 1885

  • [28]

    Self portrait for the ass, beginning 1888

  • [29]

    The old mill, 1888

  • [30]

    Self-portrait with bandaged ear, January 1889

  • [31]

    Irises, may 1889

  • [32]

    The starry night, June 1889

  • [33]

    Olive trees in mountain scenery, June 1889

  • [34]

    Drawbridge in Nieuw-Amsterdam

  • [35]

    Head of a skeleton with burning cigarette, 1885-1886

Van Gogh in culture[edit | edit source]

Van Gogh and his life are over the years inspired by various cultural expressions. The Flemish writer and artist Louis Paul Boon based his novel Gholaerts Abel (1944) on the life of Van Gogh, although he moved the Act to Flanders. About the life of the artist are made several films, including the film Lust for Life (1956) with Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Vincent and Theo, a film by Robert Altman, was produced in 1996. In 2009, the IMAXmovie Van Gogh, a colorful portrait from. Don McLean wrote the well-known song "Starry, starry night" about him, based on the painting the starry night. In 2009 came the film Vincent van Gogh, a sower in Etten in circulation, the Director was Vincent oudendijk.

Vincent van Gogh In Netherlands is included in the canon of Netherlands. The Commission-Vincent van GoghVan Oostrom has recognized as one of the fifty essential topics for the Dutch history in secondary education. In the province of Brabant, the birth of Van Gogh, are several institutions devoted to the painter. In Nuenen is there documentation centre on Vincent van Gogh and in Etten-Leur is Vincent van Gogh Information Centre. In Zundert, the birthplace of Van Gogh, the Van Gogh House. In addition, there are many exhibitions and books over the years about his work appeared, alongside other expressions as songs and flower parades.

Trivia[edit | edit source]

Work in public collections (selection)[edit | edit source]

Exhibitions (selection)[edit | edit source]

  • Van Gogh and the Amsterdam Impressionists from 1 september to 9 October 2011 at the Capital Museum in Beijing [6]

Literature (selection)[edit | edit source]

Van Gogh had said it a ' irresistible passion for books '. He refers to in his correspondence to some 150 writers and 200 literary works, ranging from the Bible and religious poetry to Charles Dickens and Emile Zola.About Vincent van Gogh are innumerable publications and articles in magazines issued.

  • Bernard, BVincent by himself: a selection of Van Gogh's paintings and drawings together with extracts from his letters, London, 1985. ISBN 0-85613-866-5
  • Artaud, AntoninVan Gogh, the suicide bomber by society (orig.: Paris, 1947) Gabriel & Schreurs, Maastricht, 1987, e.v. ISBN 90-70850-10-9
  • Forrester, VivianeVan Gogh buried in the corn. De arbeiderspers, Amsterdam, 1984. ISBN 90-295-X -1731
  • Dirven, Ron & Wouters, KeesVincent van Gogh: the mystery of the Breda'se cases, publication of the Breda's Museum, 2003. ISBN 90-806108-4-4
  • Hughes, ShirleyAtelier van Gogh, Ghent-Amsterdam, 2002. ISBN 90-5544-397-2
  • Jansen, Leo & Robert, JanShort happiness, the exchange of letters between Theo van Gogh en Jo Bonger, Waanders, Zwolle Publishing House, 2000. ISBN 90-400-9353-9
  • Kaufmann, Hans & Wildegans, RitaVan Gogh's Ohr-Paul Gauguin und der Grabs des Schweigens, ed. Osburg Verlag, Berlin, 2008
  • Lein, e.Vincent van Gogh, Lisse, 2003. ISBN 90-5841-038-2
  • Metzger, Rainer & Walther, IngoVan Gogh: the complete paintings, Cologne, 1993. ISBN 3-8228- -5137 X
  • Meyjes, IreneJohanna van Gogh-Bonger: art dealer?, publishing house Scriptio, Deventer, 2007. ISBN 90-8773-005-5
  • Steven Naifeh, & Smith, Gregory WhiteVincent van Gogh: the biography, (translated by Mario Magen), 1070 pages, Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2011. ISBN 978-90-351-3147-7
  • Perruchot, h.the life of Vincent van Gogh, Utrecht, 1965. ISBN 90-315-0203-0
  • Rohde, Shellythe Van Gogh book: Vincent van Gogh from A to Z, Bussum (Neth.)-Amsterdam, 2003. ISBN 90-6868-340-3
  • Stolwijk, Chris & Victoria, HanThe accountbook or Theo van Gogh and Jo van Gogh-Bonger, Van Gogh Museum Amsterdam 2002. ISBN 90-74310-82-6

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

Museums[edit | edit source]

Work[edit | edit source]

Letters[edit | edit source]

  • Vincent van Gogh: The Letters (the original letters plus a translation to English and images of the paintings that Van Gogh refers in the letters)

Other[edit | edit source]

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