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Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie ( Bombay ( India ), June 19 1947 ) is an essayist and writer of fiction and champion of the freedom of expression . The scene of his work is usually the Indian subcontinent. He became famous for his novels Midnight's Children and The Satanic Verses . For the last book he was hit in 1989 by a fatwa from the Iranian Muslim cleric Khomeini making him an outlaw was declared and was persecuted by Muslims . The British state offered him protection, but Rushdie had to go into hiding for ten years. At least one bomb attack against his life failed prematurely.

In his style he mixes myth and fantasy with real life. He is also known as referenced in magic realism . A source of inspiration for Rushdie is the work of Günter Grass .

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 [ hide ] *1 Life

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Rushdie grew up in Bombay, the son of a businessman, lawyer and a teacher. Later he studied history in England and graduated with honors at King's College in Cambridge . He worked atadvertising agencies (Ogilvy & Mather and Ayer Barker) before he fully devoted himself to literature. Rushdie was married four times, including with the American writer Marianne Wiggins and Indian actress and supermodel Padma Lakshmi .

Work edit ]Edit

[1][2]Salman Rushdie presents his book Shalimar the Clown and defends pornography with the right to free speech in Mountain View , Calif. , October 3, 2005

Despite its Indian origin Rushdie is one of the leading writers of modern English literature . He began his writing career with Grimus (1975), partly a fantasy tale, part science fiction .This work was generally ignored by the public and criticism .

His next book, Midnight's Children (Midnight's Children) brought him literary fame and is considered by many as his best work to date. It describes the adventures of children who were born in the night that India became independent ( 15 August 1947). It had a big impact on the Indian and British literature in the following decade. Rushdie was rewarded with the Booker Prize in 1981 and in 1993 the "Booker of Bookers Prize". This is the prize for the best novel in 25 years that a Booker Prize. Midnight's Children borrows themes in the novel The Tin Drum by Günter Grass, the book that claims to have inspired him to become a writer.

After the success of Midnight's Children , Rushdie published in 1983 a short novel, Shame (Shame). Here he gives a picture of the political turmoil in the independent Pakistan - he calls it Peccavistan - basing his characters on Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and General Zia-ul-Haq . It received the French Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger . Both works are characterized by their magic realist style and approach the Indian subcontinent from the perspective of the immigrant.

In 1988 following the Satanic Verses ( The Satanic Verses ). The book is clearly influenced to recognize Mikhail Bulgakov's classic Russian novel The Master and Margarita . It mixes the Quran with Bollywood . This led to a controversy on a global scale. Rushdie was the victim of a fatwa from the Iranian leader Khomeini with death threats and received protection from the British state. On 3 August 1989, exploded in Paddington , London bomb prematurely that was meant for Rushdie, where the terrorist was killed. The British government banned in 1990 in the United Kingdom, a Pakistani film, in which Rushdie is depicted as a casino-holder that the Pakistani government wants to overthrow. Rushdie was against this ban and praised the comic scene in which his character, a Pakistani guerrilla tortures read from him for The Satanic Verses .

Then Rushdie horizon widens: besides India and Pakistan, the western world into view. The Moor's Last Sigh ( 1995 , the last sigh of the Moor ) deals with the cultural and commercial relations between India and the Iberian Peninsula . Four years later in The Ground Beneath her ​​Feet (The ground beneath her ​​feet) is the American rock 'n' roll scene , the background of the story of stardom and its influence in India.

Fury (Fury, written as Cloisonne for the Dutch Book Week 2001 and hence the first Boekenweekgeschenk by a non-Dutch author) takes place for the most part on the United Statesand is about New York during the height of America's wealth and power.

In the novel, Shalimar the Clown ( 2005 ) Rushdie addresses the problem of the state of Kashmir , which is disputed by India and Pakistan. This fueled both countries religious contradictions between Hinduism and Islam in order to increase their influence and thereby destroyed the peaceful co-existence, with the implicit support of the (erratic) of U.S. diplomacy. Shalimar, a young Muslim growing, led by a self-proclaimed radical mullahs into terrorist falsely in the name of Islam.

In his autobiographical novel, Joseph Anton , he describes the events following the pronouncement of the fatwa. This novel was presented in the autumn of 2012 in several countries, which he gave on November 13, 2012 a public interview in Brussels Bozar . In that interview, he emphasized, among other things that the events had not changed him as a writer, and that all mentioned in the novel actually existing characters were consulted in advance about what was written by him about them, the latter led in some cases to amend or removal of passages.

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For his work Rushdie has received many literary awards, including the Aristeionprijs for Literature of the European Union . He is also a member of the Royal Society of Literature and Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres. In June 2007,he became the nobility raised (" Knight Bachelor ") for his contribution to the literature. [1]

Bibliography edit ]Edit

  • 1975 - Grimus
  • 1981 - Midnight's Children (1985: Midnight's Children , Veen)
  • 1983 - Shame (1984: Shame, Veen)
  • 1987 - A Jaguar Smile. A Nicaraguan Journey (1987: The smile of a jaguar A trip to Nicaragua. )
  • 1988 - The Satanic Verses (1989, The Satanic Verses , Contact)
  • 1990 - Haroun and the Sea of Stories (1990: Haroun and the Sea of Stories , Contact) (won the Mythopoeic Award in 1992)
  • 1990 - In good faith. A response to a year of controversy. Is nothing sacred? (1990: Is nothing sacred anymore About religion and literature? , Contact)
  • 1991 - Imaginary Homelands. Essays and criticism 1981-1991 (1991: Fatherland in the imagination , Contact)
  • 1994 - East, West (1994: East, West - stories, Contact)
  • 1995 - The Moor's Last Sigh (1995: The last sigh of the Moor , Contact)
  • 1999 - The Ground Beneath her ​​Feet (1999: The ground beneath her ​​feet , Contact)
  • 2001 - Fury (2001: Rage ( Cloisonne , for the first time written by a non-Dutch writer)
  • 2002 - Step Across This Line, Collected Non-fiction 1992-2002 (2003: Crossing the border , Contact)
  • 2005 - Shalimar the Clown (2005: Shalimar the Clown , Contact - appeared a month earlier than the English language edition)
  • 2008 - The Enchantress Of Florence (2008: The Enchantress of Florence , Contact)
  • 2010 - Luka and the Fire of Life (2010: Luka and the fire of life , Contact)
  • 2012 - Joseph Anton (2012, Contact)
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