Golf (pronounced [ɡɒlf]?) is a ball game in which a small, hard ball with a golf club from the tee (exit place) swept away is marked with a flag in the direction of a point (thehole). The goal is to get the ball in the hole in as few strokes as possible to do end up. Golf is played on a golf course.


[hide]*1 History of golf

History of golf[Edit]Edit

There would be various kinds of sports as a forerunner of the current golf game are considered. In old writings of PersiansEgyptiansGreeks and Romans are references to find different game forms that appeared on the golf. Sports like hockeypolo and croquet can be from golf would arise.

It is in any case not that golf (as for example rugby) sudden onset or invented is. Golf has developed according to an evolved process that to this day continues today.

To in the course of 2008 is believed to be the oldest mention of colf concerned a match played on 26 december 1297 in Loenen aan de Vecht. Through this would colfpartij the murder of Floris Vcount of Holland and Zeeland are commemorated. The party consisted of two teams of four people each. Now is convincing evidence that this party in reality never played can be. [source?]

Already in the magistrates of the city of Brussels issued a 1360 ordonantie from playing with "colven" forbade within the city walls. There was too much damage done and sometimes there were wounded. More cities followed that example, golf had to be played outside the city walls. Haarlem was the first city where permission was given to a specific area to mow this.

The more recent history of the golf sport is a source of conflict between the Dutch and the Scots; both claim that the real birthplace of the current golf game. But there cannot be fixed with certainty where the sport originated.

In 1597 played the crew of Willem Barentsz during the wintering on Nova Zembla ' colf ', as described in the diary of Gerrit de Veer:

Den 3. April wins a clear again with n.o. washes moy and silent, do maeckten wy a to to to daer colf colven, also our members what r allerley resources to maecken, daer wy were looking for. [1]

About 1650 was in Holland golf played with ' Scottish cliques ' (sticks), but at the beginning of the same century large quantities of balls of product exported to Scotland.These facts it is clear that there are more than three-and-a-half a century ago in Netherlands golf was played in any form.

Other precursors of the golf game are "malie", a kind of mini golf in which a ball was beaten to a destination such as a stick or stone and the sjoele game where 2 parties aimed a ball towards their camp (or village) store. Names like the malieplaats and the Mall in London testify to the popularity of the Mall "in the middle ages.

The great revolution in the Scottish golf game was playing with a small ball (instead of a large wooden ball at the forerunners). This allows much further so that a totally new type of game arose. This was possible because the Scots played on leftists. Those are great grassy plains on sandy soil behind the dunes, on which short grass grew. This lousy soils were municipality possesses. The shepherds herded their sheep there and thus remained the grass extra short. The first golfers cut a hole out and poured in a jam jar. They placed a seagulls plume at to indicate which hole the goal was.

The golf course[Edit]Edit

Most golf courses consist of 9 or 18 holes, although the first golf courses had any number of holes. Nowadays, special ' championship courses laid out. They want to attract and keep big tournaments on that job with the construction then also consider space for spectators, tents villages and parking.

The hole

One hole consists mainly of a tee, the fairway and the green. Depending on the length should the hole be played in 3, 4 or 5 strokes. The prescribed number of strokes is called the par of the hole. There are a few golf courses that also have a par 6, which are longer than 631 meters. On Golf & Country Club Regthuys was a par 6 of 704 metres constructed in 2010. There are also golf courses with nine holes that all have a par 3. On golf clubs that also have a great golf course are those little golf courses usually called the practice holes or par-3 course. Between the fairway and the green is the green, which is mowed shorter than the fairway but longer than the green. The left and right of the fairway is the rough. In addition to the fairway is still a strip cut grass (the semi rough), beyond is the rough, where bushes, trees, Heather, etc. occur, a golfer is rather not in the rough, because his ball can lose or difficult there are playable.

  • The tee is also called the exit site called. The player will usually put his ball on a wooden peg, this is also called a tee. When there was no (plastic or wood) had existed on the tee tees also a teebox with sand, so the player could make a pile of sand to impose his ball. If there is now another teebox State is often just used wastepaper basket.
  • The green is at the end of the hole. The green is a very short cut part of the track where a drain is that the hole is called. There is a flag In the hole so that the player can see where the hole from a distance that day. In English the flag called the pin, one speaks then about the pinpositie to indicate where the flag State (how many feet from the front of the green)
  • The fairway is mowed part of the track between the tee and the green. The left and right of the fairway is the less short mown semi rough, beyond is the rough.

Each hole has natural obstacles to the hole more difficult to make. There are usually water features, every course has a number of bunkers, the hole can be a curve, and can height difference.

The game[Edit]Edit

Depending on the length of the hole is determined in how many strokes the hole would have to be played, the so-called "par" (Professional Average Result). It is believed that a player needs two putts for a par 4 he hears so in two strokes on the green at a par 5, he may lie three strokes over do it. At a par 3 come hear the exit on the green. A good player can play under par, or a job in less than the number of predetermined succeed.

Length of holes measured from the gentlemen backtee, as laid down in the EURATOM rules:

  • par 3 = 80-235 metres (85-250 yards)
  • par 4 = 220-450 meters (240-490 yards)
  • par 5 = 415-630 metres (450-690 yards)
  • par 6 = longer than 631 metres (691 yards)

Most 18-hole courses have 4 par-3 holes, 4 par-5 holes and 10 par-4 holes, and then the par of the course 72.

Golf Proficiency Certificate (Cfp)

On most golf courses in Netherlands, a player must at least possess the proficiency.


An 18-hole course usually has a par of 70, 71 or 72. If a player on average 24 succeed needs more than the par of the course, his disability is put on 24. If he runs and 28 strokes a round more than needed, then he has played 4 strokes above his handicap. If he plays against a player that handicap 10 has 14, then he may succeed more about doing it. On the scorecard is stated on which hole he then gets a blow of the other player. In this way, the player with handicap 24 yet winning the player with handicap 10.

Any amateur player has a disability. The lower the handicap, the better the player. Professionals have no disability.


To save a ball makes the player a golf swing. Depending on the golf club with which he strikes the ball will travel a certain distance. A player may 14 golf clubs (or clubs) with them that their own goal. Some people play with a half set. Advanced players have a driver from the tee as far as possible with him to turn down.

  • a full battle can be made with all clubs except with the putter.
  • the approach is the battle with which the player the green aanspeelt with a high ball that struck after landing few rolls.
  • the chip is the battle with which the player aanspeelt the green, with the ball goes through the air layer first and then continuous rolling.
  • the pitch is struck with a pitching wedge, on the club head marked with PW, usually used to chipping
  • bunker battle, made with a sandwedge, marked on the clubhoogd with SW, is used to save the ball from a bunker
  • punch stroke can be struck with different clubs, the intention is that the ball kept low.
  • lob battle is usually carried out by sand or lob wedge, here it is the intention to play the ball as high as possible
  • the wells happens with the goal to save the ball into the hole. The ball does not have to lie on the green. If the ball is on the green, the player may play the ball also with another club, but that rarely happens.
  • the flop is a failed battle
Golf Rules

The golf rules are defined in the Rules of Golf, approved by The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews and the United States Golf Association.

Game Variants

There are two game forms, namely the stroke play and match play:

  • In stroke play is with the least number of strokes (strokes) the Court to put off, possibly after settlement of the disability of the players.
  • At matchplay play two players (or two duos) against each other, hole by hole; who needs the least strokes on a hole WINS that hole. Who has won more than one hole the opponent is "one up", etc. (the opponent is then "one down" etc.); a tie is said to be the "all square" is.

At matchplay do not necessarily have all holes to be played: If one more holes than there are holes remaining ahead of France, the winner and the contest closed. When one plays with two against two, this can still be done in two ways: either each player has his own ball (fourball), where only the best score of both on one hole counts, either there is one ball for both players out there took turns to play (foursomes).

Most professional tournaments use stroke play, in which the scores of different rounds are added to know the winner. At major tournaments is done this over a long weekend, Thursday through Sunday. Although the players in groups of two or three plays, it is in fact an individual competition: everyone plays to get the lowest score. At a 4-day tournament is after the second round a number of players off, usually around 60%, they have taken the cut or not. To leave the best for the weekend.

The score is kept in relation to the par of the course; the winner has the lowest score. If there is a tie after the final round at the first place, so an equal number of strokes after 4 days, should this play a play-off ; for this there are several systems in use. Usually it's going to be the one who wins a hole, so the lower of the two or more participants. If after the hole still everyone an equal score has, there is a hole, just as long until there is a winner.

Technique and training[Edit]Edit

Golf is a combination of movement and think sport. Each of the countless places where a ball may lie, requires a proper assessment and approach. The assessment of the terrain, the distance and the direction, the influence of the wind, the choice of and the power of the battle; These are all factors of the ' secret of the golf game '. The two-handed grip on the stick and the smooth battle, which ends in the typical tail swing, apply further as basic characteristics of the technique. The exit should be carried out, that the greatest possible distance the ball travels. That saves perhaps a battle. Seasoned golfers say: sends the left hand, the right stores. A major influence on the battle are of course also the body posture and the placement of the feet. The golf game one can learn at any age. How well, that obviously depends on the time it spends it. A round along 18 holes takes 3 to 5 hours. The beginner should first take some lessons and over-exercising. Each club has its own golf teacher – often in the clubhouse pro called – which ' floats ' a proshop, a small shop, where one can purchase equipment and apparel. In a sports shop, these things are usually not available.


[1][2]A golf resort.

The main standard equipment for the game of golf consists of:

  • Golf Balls: the diameter of the average golf ball is 4.27 inches and weighs about 46 grams. The aerodynamics of a golf ball is very interesting: the surface of the ball is equipped with many round, shallow wells (dimples) that, totally contrary to the feeling in the air resistance, reduce significantly. This makes it possible to use a golf club to save the ball more than 330 metres.
    Jack Nicklaus has balls designed with nodules on the outside, which proved to be only 30% of the distance to go. He foresaw a market on cruise ships and on practice locations, but it was a flop. At the end of 1980s there is a demonstration with featured on the Malieveld in the Hague.
    • While playing one hole should not replace his ball unless the rules allow it should.
    • If a golf ball is lost while playing the hole, for example in the water, off the track or anywhere in the forest, then the player may save the ball again (2 penalty shots, so-called stokr & distance) or indicated by the rules place a new ball dropping. This is punishable by 1 bad battle.
    • When one thinks that the ball broke, one can request permission to the fellow player the ball to pick it up and view it. This is sometimes for after the ball from a bunker is struck. If the ball is broken (unfit for play) he may be replaced without penalty.
    • One should begin with a new ball on each hole. One should to the marker that brings a new ball in play (brand and number sign).

[3][4]Four irons and a putter*Golf clubs (golf clubs): there is an extensive range of clubs capable of hitting different lengths and conditions on the golf course. The golf rules of procedure provides that a player can take up to 14 clubs in the bag, he determines the composition itself:

    • driver ("wood 1"): the longest club with the least inclination angle ("loft" of 9 ° to 10 °). This club was created to beat off the tee (tee-shot) and with this club the maximum achievable distance can be achieved.
    • Wooden 3, 5, 7 and/or 9 ("Fairway woods"): originally just like the driver with a wooden clubkop, nowadays from metal such as titanium. These clubs are less long than the driver and have a schuiner interface (larger ' loft '), so that the ball Gets a higher flight and less far-reaching. Woods are made for the long strokes and have less accuracy. In the bag are the club heads protected by a head cover (kind of thick cover). Y E Yang has seven clubs in his bag with a head cover.
    • hybrid clubs can the long irons (of iron 1 to 4) and the woods 5-7-9 replaced. The advantage to this is that this club has the precision of irons and the distance of a wood gives.
    • irons: these clubs are made for the shorter, but more accurate strokes. The various "irons" have a number of 3 to 9. The number indicates how long the club is and how many "loft" the interface between the club has; the higher the number, the shorter the club and the more loft club level,. The more "loft" the higher (and less) the ball will fly and how far that will roll. At a club level 3 forms the iron angle of 21 ° with the vertical; at an iron 9 is the angle 43 °. Thus, one can with the same swing by the correct choice of a club determine how far one will store. Between each number is the difference in distance about 30 feet (9 m).
    • different wedges: in the past, players had only a PW and SW, and nowadays is often a third wedge included. The wedges all have a different bounce, the negative angle (roundness) at the bottom of the battle field.
      • pitching wedge (PW): a club with a "loft" of 47 ° 48 °, or used to the ball from near the green to be able to play as close to the hole.
      • gap wedge (GW): a wedge between PW and SW in it.
      • sand wedge (SW): a wedge with a loft of 56 °, specially used to save the ball from the bunker, but also used for short distances.
      • lob wedge (LW): a wedge with an extreme angle of inclination up to 65 °, especially for difficult situations where an extra high ball flight is required.
    • putter: the club used to play on the green. The interface is practically vertical, because the ball must be rolled over the green. There is a wide variety in putters, both in length of the Shaft and club head.
  • Headcovers: Head covers are protective covers you on the back slide over the head of a golf club. Golf clubs are precision instruments and duration of price, therefore there are head covers designed to protect it.
    Formerly one pulled an old sock over the golf club back to protect it. Nowadays there is a wide range of styles available, still maintained the tradition, so there are still retro socks with a modern twist. So there is more than the standard head cover that comes with the purchase of a club.
    The choice in styles keeps it interesting and personal. It gives insight into the personality of a golfer, his or her hobbies, or the style in which the players express themselves in a fun and trendy, yet practical way.Headcovers are often made of rubber, neoprene and leather, among other materials. The selection is really a matter of choice and personal preference. There are head covers available for almost every personality or interest.
  • Tee: this is a wooden or plastic pin that is inserted into the ground to make the golf ball on when turn one at the start of a hole. One may use a tee only during the turn.
  • Marker: If the ball lands on the green is it may be picked up and cleaned. The player must use a marker to indicate the place where the ball lay so that the ball can be placed back in the same place. The marker is right behind the ball placed in the line of the hole. The marker is a small plastic/iron button, there is a coin used.
  • Pitch fork: this is a small fork to the restore on a green pitch marks. (dimples). If a ball lands on the green leave it for a print behind.
  • Each player must rule booklet upon.
  • To write the score Ballpoint . Avoid using pencil, because if the card gets wet, blurs the text.
  • Clothing: the main one being that clothing is pleasant and gives enough freedom of movement. In addition, most golf clubs a dress code. On these jobs are jeans and t-shirts than usually not allowed. A polo shirtis the most common with golf.
    • golf shoes must ensure that the player has a stable stand in striking, even though the grass moist and smooth. Golf shoes are therefore mostly fitted with spikes or studs. Older golf shoes have iron spikes, modern golf shoes have softspikes. The spikes can be replaced because they are detachable. Bubbles are part of a sole. many amateur players wearing shoes with bubbles, because it gives enough for their firmness and most clubhouses with it may be accessed. Shoes with spikes are submitted by better players and used by almost all professionals. On the European PGA Tour may only players with spikes on the green, caddies and recorders with spikes not.
    • golf glove: special for golf gloves are made to better hold the golf club and prevent blisters on the hands occur.
    • rain suit and umbrella
    • jack: formerly carried players like several sweaters about each other as it was cold, rather than a stiff jack, but nowadays there are thin jackets that are wind-and waterproof.

Golf Terms[Edit]Edit

The following terms we hear often in the golf sport: Hole-in-one – Albatros – Eagle - Birdie - Par - Bogey – Double Bogey – Caddie – Disability

See also golf terminology for a glossary of many golf terms.

Golf Holidays[Edit]Edit

Golf Tourism is a form of tourism where the golf Central. This market is still growing especially in countries in Europe.

Golf as Olympic sports[Edit]Edit


See Golf at the summer Olympics for the main article on this topic.

Golf has twice been on the program of the Olympic Summer Games, first in 1900 and renovated in the year 1904. The International Olympic Committee decided in October 2009 that the sport after more than a century absence will return on the program of the Olympic Summer Games in 2016 and 2020. [2]

Famous golfers[Edit]Edit

International golfers
Dutch golfers




Senior players


Netherlands at the end of 2008, had 330,000 golfers and has 186 associations with a private accommodation.

Major golf tournaments[Edit]Edit

Ladies Course Gentlemen Course
Four Majors (chronologically)
Kraft Nabisco Championship [28]

United States

The Masters [29]

United States

LPGA Championship [30]

United States

US Open [31]

United States

US women's Open [32]

United States

The Open Championship [33]

United Kingdom

Women's British Open [34]

United Kingdom

PGA Championship [35]

United States

United States vs. Europe
Solheim Cup changing Ryder Cup changing
Volvo World Match Play Championship Since 2009 in Spain
Dutch Open
Ladies Dutch Open changing Dutch Open changing
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