FANDOM


The Eiffel Tower (Frenchla tour Eiffel) is a monument in Paris and one of France's best known and most visited sights. He stands on the left bank of the Seine in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.

The Eiffel Tower is the symbol of Paris. He is seen by many as one of the non-classical world wonders.

The tower was designed by the engineers Maurice Koechlin and Named, two employees of Gustave Eiffel. The tower now receives more than six million visitors annually, making it the most visited monument in the world. [1[2On 28 november 2002 the Eiffel Tower welcomed its 200 millionth guest.

On the first platform is an exhibition on the Eiffel Tower with photos, paintings and information. With the elevator it is possible to go to the top of the Eiffel Tower (the stairs above the second platform is not publicly accessible). Information panels indicate the buildings seen from the Eiffel Tower. There is a unique view over Paris.

The Eiffel Tower is 317 feet high to the top of the flagpole, without counting the television antennas. The tower is 324 meters high with television antennas. Depending on the ambient temperature can change the Tower 15 cm in height by turning off or shrinking of the metal. The Tower has four legs; platforms are located on different levels.The Tower weighs 7300 tons (excluding the Foundation). After its construction the Eiffel Tower the world's tallest Tower and he is still the highest in Europe if one does not count the TV towers.

From nine to twelve o'clock in the evening, the lights on the Eiffel Tower every hour a few minutes Flash. This is done for the first time on new year's Eve 2000. Because this beautiful was found, this happens every night now.

ContentEdit

[hide]*1 History

History[Edit]Edit

The Eiffel Tower was built between 1887 and 1889 on the occasion of the universal exhibition of 1889; the Eiffel Tower would be the monumental access to the exhibition.The year 1889 was not accidental chosen: it was the centenary of the French Revolution. The Eiffel Tower was inaugurated on 31 March 1889 and officially opened on 6 may . A total of 250 steel workers worked at the building. It was remarkable for that time, that no single worker killed during construction (there was killed only a worker who climbed the tower outside work time with his fiancée).

The Parisian population was, during the first years that the tower was about, not at all happy with the monument. In many eyes it was a metal absurdity. Today, the Eiffel Tower, however, considered an architectural masterpiece. A special feature is the multitude of intricate ornaments (forgings) that have been made on the Tower, a feat that Eiffel gave the nickname iron Wizard .

Originally it was intended that the Eiffel Tower would be demolished again after 20 years, but because the Tower proved valuable for communication purposes, he was allowed to remain longer. On 12 January 1908 was the first long-distance radiobericht sent from the tower.

On 3 January 1956 a fire damaged the top of the tower. A year later the current antenna on top posted.

In the 1980s were an old restaurant and its supporting scaffold construction dismantled and removed from the Eiffel Tower. The whole was sold and rebuilt in New Orleans. Nowadays there are two restaurants: Altitude 95 in the Tower on the first floor and the restaurant Le Jules Verne on 125 metres above sea level. Le Jules Vernehas one Michelin star.

In the year 2000 we installed countless Flashers and powerful search lights on the tower. Every night there is a light show, and the search lights at the top of the Eiffel Tower during the night in the Parisian skyline. Every year on Bastille Day, July 14, the French national holiday, is chipped around the Eiffel Tower a grand fireworks in honor of the anniversary of the French Revolution.

On the occasion of the 120th anniversary in 2009 gave the Société d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel the monument a revamp with an architectural intervention by the Office at the top of Serero Architectes de Paris. The surgery came down to placing a platform with a transparent structure, that gored webvormige 1700 visitors per hour can bear. The web made from Kevlar , ultra light and from carbon fibres, is attached to the top of the Tower, like the wings of an airplane to the hull are confirmed.

Construction[Edit]Edit

Initially, at the time, Gustave Eiffel -master of architecture with wrought iron -thought to be 12 months with the construction. In reality, however, the construction lasted twice as long, and the construction phase, which began on 28 January 1887, ended only at the end of March 1889, but that was still in time for the official opening of the world exhibition of 1889. The monument has cost a total of 1.5 million francs more than originally expected.

The number of workers on the construction site is never been above the 250. The reason for this is that much of the work was done in advance already in the factories of Eiffel, in Levallois-Perret. Of the 2.5 million rivets in the Tower there are only placed 1.050.846 on the construction site, about 42% of the total. Most parts are assembled on the ground in the factories in Levallois-Perret, per chunks of five feet, with provisional bolts. On the construction site then the bolts were replaced by rivets.

For the design are fifty engineers spent two years drawing 5300 drawings of details of the Eiffel Tower. Of each of the 18,038 wrought-iron pieces from the Eiffel Tower is a sketch made.

By selecting for wrought iron as building material, the tower is resistant to meteorological conditions and metal fatigue, and would still be able to go along several centuries[3.

On the construction site were, as a first step, four concrete base pieces posted in support of the four legs. This was necessary to spread the pressure on the ground.

The assembling of the metal began on 1 July 1887. The men who were responsible for these giant "Meccano" are called les voltigeurs . They were led by Jean Compagnon. Up to 30 metres high were hoisted up the pieces with the help of a crane. Between 30 and 45 meters was built using 12 wooden scaffolding. Over 45 metres high were built, which confirmed there were new scaffolding to beams of 70 tons for the first floor. And this was followed by connecting the four edges, for the first floor. This connection is completed on december 7, 1887. For the construction of the second floor had to be made again scaffolding.

In september 1888, when the second floor was already built, the workers in strike. They did not agree with the working time: 9 hours a day in winter and in summer, 12 hours a day, and they found the wages too low in front of the risks. Eiffel gave accordingly that the risks are no different at a height of 50 metres than at an altitude of 200 metres. And although the workers were paid better than the average at the time, was the requirement of the salary increase granted. Three months later, a strike broke out again but this time kept the lead the leg stiff and refused any negotiation.

When the building was completed, there had to be a provision to the third floor to be able to visit. The lifts of Backmann, originally were planned in the design that was submitted for the contest in may 1886, were rejected by the jury. Eiffel made therefore use three new Roux-Combaluzier Lepape etsuppliers:, the American company Otis andLéon Edoux.

Construction in image[Edit]Edit

  • [1]

    18 July 1887: the construction of the metal legs

  • [2]

    december 7, 1887: the Assembly of a mainstay for the construction of the first floor

  • [3]

    20 March 1888: construction of the horizontal bars for the Middle scaffolding

  • [4]

    15 May 1888: the Assembly of the pillars above the first floor

  • [5]

    21 August 1888: The construction of the second floor

  • [6]

    26 december 1888: the construction of the stretch between the second and third floor

  • [7]

    15 March 1889: mounting the third floor

  • [8]

    At the end of March, 1889: the results of the work

Until the first world war[Edit]Edit

On 6 May 1889 the Eiffel Tower opened its doors to the public, in honor of the world exhibition of that year. Starting from May 15, the public was allowed to climb the tower.Although the Tower during construction was criticized by some of the world's most famous artists of that time, he was quickly a success. In the first week, when the lifts were not yet in use, have climbed to the top Tower 28.922 persons. About 32 million visitors have visited the tower for the world exhibition.

The monument was, until the construction of the Chrysler building in New York (1930), the tallest building in the world.

After the world fair was over, the interest and reduce the number of visitors fell fast. In 1899 there were only 149.580 visitors. The tower was started commercially exploit, by lowering the price of the tickets; However, with barely visible result. On the universal exhibition of 1900, which was again in Paris , more than a million tickets were sold, more than the ten years before that. But in 1901 the decrease only grow, because many people had already seen the Tower in 1889.

The decrease in the number of visitors made sure that the future of the tower was no longer certain after 31 december 1909, at the expiry of the permit. Some even believed that the tower would be torn down after that date. The con artist Victor Lustig played useful on these rumors in and clears the tower to sell to a scrap dealer .

Around 1937[Edit]Edit

The Tower underwent a modernisation on the occasion of the world exhibition of 1937. The modernization consisted of removing the old fashioned decorations of the first floor and adding new lighting on the whole Tower.

Starting from the second world war[Edit]Edit

In 1944 escaped the tower to arson by the German occupiers. The attack was claimed by the Wehrmacht.

In the beginning of the sixties it began international tourism to grow. This had direct consequences for the number of visitors to the tower. This number increased greatly and later came even close to six million visitors a year. (The record was broken In 1998 for the first time met.) A new renovation of the tower was needed. The renovation was focused on the following points:

  • Streamlining the structure of the building
  • The total rebuilding of elevators and stairs
  • Creating safety adapted to the popularity of the Eiffel Tower

To this end, the tower was stripped of and treated against corrosionand painted during the again. Also the lifts for the third floor was replaced and the restaurant Le Jules Verne opened.

Starting from the 1970s is the Eiffel Tower have become increasingly popular, world famous and one of the most famous symbols of France.

On 26 december 1978 began, thanks to Thierry Sabine, the first Paris-Dakar rally at the foot of the Eiffel Tower. Several concerts are also held in this place: Jean-Michel Jarre in 1995 and Johnny Hallyday in 2000.

In 2002 has reached the milestone of 200 million tickets and in 2004 was the fifth in the most visited monuments of the Île-de-France.

Currently there are 25 painters in service for the maintenance of the tower and prevent rusting. Painting takes about 7 years, then the old layer is worn out and start again. [4]

Floors[Edit]Edit

[9]

This is a list of the important elements of the Eiffel Tower. [5[6]

Height from the ground Height above sea level width surface
Third floor 276,13 meters 309,63 meters 18.65 meters 352 m²
Second floor 115,73 meters 149,23 meters 40,96 metres 1650 m²
First floor 57,63 meters 91,13 meters 70,69 meters 4200 m²
Bottom 33.50 metres «124,90 metres (74,24 between the pillars)

The information below describes the main technical specifications on each floor, and the main places of interest for visitors. [7[8]

Basic[Edit]Edit

[10]
Located Dimensions Construction Designers Materials
Base of the Tower Width: 25 m

Height: 4 m

1887 Maurice Koechlin

Émile Nouguier Together Stephen Sauvestre

Concrete

Gravel Steel

The tower stands in a square of 125 x 125 meters, according to the rules of the contest in 1886. The Tower has a height of 325 metres, with its 116 antennas. The tower is 33.5 metres above sea level.

The Foundation
The Foundation consists of a layer of concrete by two meters which rests on a layer of gravel of seven metres. The bottom of the Foundation lies itself below the level of the Seine.
The employees worked in a metal caisson, to idea of Jacques Triger. Sixteen massive foundations support each edge of the four legs and the huge anchoring of 7.8 meters.
The legs
Each of the four legs moves with the wind. The Foundation of each leg is a thick concrete layer. The stairs are open to the public, the southern leg has an elevator, intended for the staff and the customers of the restaurant Le Jules-Verne, on the second floor.
The arches
Between the legs are four arches, 39 feet above the ground and have a diameter of 74 meters. Although they are on the sketches of Stephen Sauvestre richly decorated, they are now less.

First floor[Edit]Edit

[11]
Located Dimensions Surface Built Materials
57,63 m above the ground Beam: 70,69 metres 4200 m2 1887 Wrought Iron

At 57 metres above the ground is the first floor with an area of 4200 m2 and calculated on 3000 people.

The first floor offers around views over Paris and Parisian monuments. On the outside are the 72 names of French scientists, engineers and some other people from the 18th and 19th century posted.

On the first floor there is also the Altitude 95restaurant, which stretches over two levels. It offers a panoramic view over Paris and the inside of the tower. The name comes from the height of the first floor of the Eiffel Tower, which is 95 meters above sea level.

It is also possible to remains linked to the history of to see, including the Eiffel Tower, part of a spiral staircase that was originally intended for climbing to the top. This staircase was demolished in 1986, during the renovation of the tower. 21 out of 22 parts of this staircase were auctioned off, with most were bought by American collectors.

Second floor[Edit]Edit

[12]
Located Dimensions Surface Built Materials
115,73 m above the ground Beam: 40,96 m 1650 m2 1888 Wrought Iron

At 115 feet above the ground is the second floor with an area of 1650 m2 and calculated at 1600 people.

On this floor is the view of Paris the best, it is the optimal height relative to the lower buildings. On the third floor are the buildings less visible. If the weather is clear, is the estimated distance to where you can see to the South 55 km, 60 km to the North, to the East 65 km and 70 km to the West.

In the floor are Windows that allow to view the box below. The metal fences preventing each jump down: as suicide or skydiving.

The restaurant Le Jules-Verne is a restaurant with a capacity of 95 seats. The restaurant has been awarded a Michelin star. The decor of this restaurant is bleak and has been unchanged since its opening in 1983.The restaurant has one view of the structure of the tower and Paris. In the restaurant work thirty cooks and 60 other staff.

Third floor[Edit]Edit

[13]
Located Dimensions Surface Built Highest television mast
276,13 m above the ground Beam: 18.65 m 350 m2 1889 325 m above the ground

On 275 meters above the ground is the third floor with an area of 350 square meters and calculated on 400 people.

To be able to come on the third floor, one must take the elevator, because the stairs from the second floor is prohibited to the public. From the third floor it is possible to take a few steps to a platform outside, that sometimes (wrongly) the fourth floor is called.

On this floor is a reconstruction of the Musée Grévin , that based on an idea from Eiffel was created. It seems here as if Eiffel this has used as an Office. The historical reality is something different. In fact, the place used for meteorological research, by Gustave that same year in 1910. Wireless telegraphy was used for these experiments.

On the top of the tower was placed a TV mast from 1957 to 1959. This was used for about 10 million households. On 17 January 2005, the first antenna for digital television posted, the addition of the 116th antenna has ensured that the tower now 325 m high, instead of 324 m. However, new measurements were done In 2014, which showed that the construction is shrunk to 320 meters.

72 names on the Eiffel Tower[Edit]Edit

[14]

See 72 names on the Eiffel Tower for the main article on this topic.

On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists in Golden, engineers and some other notable people in recognition of their contributions to Eiffel. The names are located on the edge of the first floor. The engraved names were painted over in the beginning of the twentieth century and restored in 1986-1987.

Visitors[Edit]Edit

The yearly number of visitors of the Eiffel Tower[Edit]Edit

The first table shows the actual number of visitors per year from 1889, with the periods that the tower was closed to the public, between 1915 and 1918 (first world war) and between 1940 and 1945 (World War II).There are about 243.376.000 people been since its opening on the Eiffel Tower (mid-May 8, 2009) [9]

Number of annual visitors to the Eiffel Tower, starting from 1889.
Year Visitors Year Visitors Year Visitors Year Visitors Year Visitors Year Visitors
1889 1 968 287 1910 203 803 1931 822 550 1952 1 250 094 1973 2 914 814 1994 5 419 462
1890 393 414 1911 204 168 1932 339 242 1953 1 204 371 1974 3 018 455 1995 5 212 677
1891 335 829 1912 258 950 1933 363 720 1954 1 301 152 1975 3 045 573 1996 5 530 279
1892 277 276 1913 261 337 1934 322 969 1955 1 435 192 1976 3 050 606 1997 5 719 773
1893 265 894 1914 152 725 1935 288 643 1956 1 476 400 1977 3 298 844 1998 6 051 603
1894 210 836 1915 Closed 1936 264 145 1957 1 632 647 1978 3 430 886 1999 6 368 534
1895 218 974 1916 Closed 1937 809 978 1958 1 591 005 1979 3 429 571 2000 6 315 324
1896 226 654 1917 Closed 1938 258 306 1959 1 668 558 1980 3 594 190 2001 6 103 987
1897 199 827 1918 Closed 1939 252 495 1960 1 735 230 1981 3 393 208 2002 6 157 042
1898 183 391 1919 311 714 1940 Closed 1961 1 763 448 1982 3 399 683 2003 5 864 969
1899 149 580 1920 417 869 1941 Closed 1962 1 735 796 1983 3 701 558 2004 6 230 050
1900 1 024 887 1921 426 635 1942 Closed 1963 2 013 594 1984 4 183 857 2005 6 428 441
1901 131 724 1922 422 172 1943 Closed 1964 2 143 173 1985 4 368 573 2006 6 719 200
1902 121 144 1923 551 444 1944 Closed 1965 2 295 193 1986 4 386 291 2007 6 822 374
1903 122 979 1924 585 730 1945 Closed 1966 2 405 554 1987 4 293 187 2008 6 826 591
1904 156 918 1925 631 758 1946 603 349 1967 2 416 502 1988 4 668 468 2009 6 503 413
1905 169 770 1926 657 004 1947 1 009 161 1968 2 070 417 1989 5 580 363 2010 6 612 000
1906 182 399 1927 555 087 1948 958 386 1969 2 561 157 1990 5 698 613 2011 -
1907 190 026 1928 634 819 1949 1 143 046 1970 2 757 768 1991 5 442 346 2012 -
1908 189 338 1929 577 624 1950 1 026 631 1971 2 899 070 1992 5 747 357 2013 -
1909 181 574 1930 580 075 1951 1 129 637 1972 3 003 659 1993 5 537 155 2014 -

Suicide Attempts[Edit]Edit

Since 1911, when the first person committed suicide on the Eiffel Tower,[10][11the tower is one of the most popular suicide spots in France: there, in an average year, four people commit suicide. [12In total, about 350 to 400 people here of life robbed. [13suicide occurs mainly by hanging to the steel beams or by the tower to jump. There are only two known cases in which someone survived the suicide attempt, both from the first floor of the Tower: the first time the wind blew a man on a truss of a building, other times a woman fell on the roof of a car. Noteworthy is that they, after they've physically recovered, with the owner of the car got married.

Images[Edit]Edit

  • [15]

    Eiffel Tower in 1902, by Thunderstruck

  • [16]

    Fireworks around the Eiffel Tower on July 14

  • [17]

    View from the Eiffel Tower on the Seine

  • [18]

    Eiffel Tower with the Pont Neuf on the foreground

  • [19]

    Countless mini-Eiffel Towers as souvenirs

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.