colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Cheetah
Temporal range: PleistoceneHolocene, Template:Fossilrange
File:Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) female 2.jpg
Female cheetah in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
Acoustic repertoire of cheetahs
Conservation status
colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Scientific classification e</small>
Species: <. Script error
colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Binomial name
Script error Script error
(Schreber, 1775)
colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Subspecies
File:Cheetah range.gif
The range of the cheetah

Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend Template:Leftlegend


The cheetah (/ˈtə/; Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures.[1]

It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches Template:Convert/toScript error at the shoulder, and weighs Template:Convert/-Script error. Although taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots.

Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within Template:Convert/–Script error, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of Template:Convert/km/hScript error in short bursts, but the top end speed of the cheetah is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of a cheetah while hunting is about Template:Convert/km/hScript error. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsTemplate:Sndsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs.

Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

Etymology Edit

The vernacular name "cheetah" is derived from cītā (Template:Lang-hi), which in turn comes from the Sanskrit word Template:IAST (चित्रकायः) meaning "bright" or "variegated". The first recorded use of this word has been dated back to 1610.[2][3] An alternative name for the cheetah is "hunting leopard".[4] The scientific name of the cheetah is Acinonyx jubatus.[5] The generic name Acinonyx originated from the combination of two Greek words: akinetos means motionless, and onyx means claw.[6][7] A rough translation of the word would be "non-moving claws", a reference to the limited retractability (capability of being drawn inside the paw) of the claws of the cheetah relative to other cats'. The specific name jubatus means "maned" in Latin, referring to the dorsal crest of this animal.[8]



The cheetah is the only extant species of the genus Acinonyx. It belongs to Felinae, the subfamily of Felidae that also includes lynxes, wildcats, and the puma. The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in his 1775 publication Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen.[5]

The cheetah's closest relatives are the cougar (Puma concolor) and the jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi).[9] These three species together form the Puma lineage, one of the eight lineages of Felidae.[10][11][12] The sister group of the Puma lineage is a clade of smaller Old World cats that includes the genera Felis, Otocolobus and Prionailurus.[13]

Although the cheetah is an Old World cat, molecular evidence indicates that the three species of the Puma lineage evolved in North America two to three million years ago, where they possibly had a common ancestor during the Miocene.[14] They possibly diverged from this ancestor 8.25 million years ago.[11] The cheetah diverged from the puma and the jaguarundi around 6.7 million years ago.[15] A genome study suggests that cheetahs experienced two genetic bottlenecks in their history, the first about 100,000 years ago and the second about 12,000 years ago, greatly lowering their genetic variability. These bottlenecks may have been associated with migrations across Asia and into Africa (with the current African population founded about 12,000 years ago), and/or with a depletion of prey species at the end of the Pleistocene.[16]

Cheetah fossils found in the lower beds of the Olduvai Gorge site in northern Tanzania date back to the Pleistocene.[17] The extinct species of Acinonyx are older than the cheetah, with the oldest known from the late Pliocene; these fossils are about three million years old.[18] These species include Acinonyx pardinensis (Pliocene epoch), notably larger than the modern cheetah, and A.Script errorintermedius (mid-Pleistocene period).[19] While the range of A.Script errorintermedius stretched from Europe to China, AScript errorpardinensis spanned over Eurasia as well as eastern and southern Africa.[18] A variety of larger cheetah believed to have existed in Europe fell to extinction around half a million years ago.[4]

Extinct North American cats resembling the cheetah had historically been assigned to Felis, Puma or Acinonyx. However, a phylogenetic analysis in 1990 placed these species under the genus Miracinonyx.[20] Miracinonyx exhibited a high degree of similarity with the cheetah. However, in 1998, a DNA analysis showed that Miracinonyx inexpectatus, M.Script errorstuderi, and M.Script errortrumani (early to late Pleistocene epoch), found in North America,[19] are more closely related to the cougar than modern cheetahs.[13]

Subspecies Edit

In 1775, Schreber described a stuffed cheetah skin from the Cape of Good Hope.[21] In the 19th and 20th centuries, several cheetah specimen were described and proposed as subspecies. The following table is based on the classification of the species provided in Mammal Species of the World.[5] It also reflects the classification used by IUCN Red List assessors and the revision by the Cat Classification Task Force:[9]

The Cat Classification Task Force have added that the divergence between soemmeringii, jubatus and venaticus is very recent, and these may represent a single subspecies, and that further study may reveal there are only two or even a single subspecies.[9]

Subspecies Distribution Image
Southeast African cheetah (A. j. jubatus) Schreber, 1775), syn. A. j. raineyi[9] Heller, 1913 This is the nominate cheetah subspecies.[5]

It occurs in Southern and East African countries including Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. It is regionally extinct in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.[1] In 2007, the Southern African population was roughly estimated at less than 5,000 to maximum 6,500 adult individuals.[22][23] In 2010, it was reported to persist in Iona National Park in southwestern Angola.[24] It was introduced in the Hlane Royal National Park of Swaziland and reintroduced in Malawi's Liwonde National Park.[25][26] Since 1999, the population suffered a massive decline in Zimbabwe.[27][28] as well as in Mozambique following the civil wars during 1980s and 1990s.[1]

It is thought to have been separated from the Asiatic cheetah nearly 0.32–0.67 million years ago.[29]

Asiatic cheetah (A. j. venaticus) Griffith, 1821 This subspecies is confined to Iran, and is thus the only surviving cheetah population in Asia. It has been classified as Critically Endangered.[30] In 2007, the total population was estimated at 60 to 100 individuals including juveniles.[31] In 2017, fewer than 50 individuals were thought to be remaining in three subpopulations that are scattered over Template loop detected: Template:Convert/km2Script error in Iran's central plateau.[32]

It used to occur from the Arabian Peninsula and to Turkey, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan to India.[33]

Northeast African cheetah (A. j. soemmeringii) Fitzinger, 1855 This subspecies occurs in South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea.[1] It is closely related to A. j. jubatus. Results of a phylogeographic analysis indicate that the two subspecies diverged between 16,000 and 72,000 years ago.[29] 250px
Northwest African cheetah (A. j. hecki) Hilzheimer, 1913 This subspecies occurs in Northwestern Africa including Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. Small populations are known to exist in the Ahaggar and Tassili N'Ajjer National Parks.[34] In 2003, a population of 20 to 40 individuals was estimated to survive in Ahaggar National Park.[35] In Niger, cheetahs have been recorded in the Aïr Mountains, Ténéré, Termit Massif, Talak and Azaouak valley. In 1993, a population of 50 individuals were estimated in Ténéré. In Benin, the cheetah occurs in Pendjari National Park and W National Park. Its status is obscure in Burkina Faso, where individuals may be confined to the southeastern region. With the total population estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, it is listed as Critically Endangered.[36] 250px

Genetics Edit

The diploid number of chromosomes in the cheetah is 38, the same as in most other felids (though for the ocelot and the margay the number is 36).[33] A remarkable feature of the cheetah is its unusually low genetic variability in comparison to other felids. Consequently, individuals show considerable genetic similarity to one another,[37][38][39] as illustrated by skin grafts, electrophoretic evidence and reproductive surveys.[40] A prolonged period of inbreeding, following a genetic bottleneck during the last ice age, is believed to be the reason behind this anomaly.[41] The consequences of such genetic uniformity might include a low sperm count, decreased sperm motility, deformed flagella, difficulty in captive breeding and susceptibility to disease.[18][40]

King cheetah Edit

File:King cheetah.jpg

The king cheetah is a variety of cheetah with a rare mutation for cream-coloured fur marked with large, blotchy spots and three dark, wide stripes extending from their neck to the tail.[42] In 1926 Major A.Script errorCooper wrote about an animal he had shot near modern-day Harare. Describing the animal, he noted its remarkable similarity to the cheetah, but the body of this individual was covered with fur as thick as that of a snow leopard and the spots merged to form stripes. He suggested that it could be a cross between a leopard and a cheetah. After further similar animals were discovered, it was established they were similar to the cheetah in having non-retractable clawsTemplate:Sndsa characteristic feature of the cheetah.[43][44]

English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock described it as a new species by the name of Acinonyx rex ("rex" being Latin for "king", the name translated to "king cheetah");[44] However, he changed his position on its species status in 1939. English hunter-naturalist Abel Chapman considered it to be a colour morph of the spotted cheetah.[8][45] Since 1927 the king cheetah has been reported five more times in the wild; an individual was photographed in 1975.[46]

In May 1981 two spotted sisters gave birth at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre (South Africa), and each litter contained one king cheetah. Each sister had mated with a wild male from the Transvaal region (where king cheetahs had been recorded). Further king cheetahs were later born at the Centre. They have been known to exist in Zimbabwe, Botswana and northern Transvaal. In 2012 the cause of this alternative coat pattern was found to be a mutation in the gene for transmembrane aminopeptidaseScript errorQ (Taqpep), the same gene responsible for the striped "mackerel" versus blotchy "classic" patterning seen in tabby cats.[47] Hence, genetically the king cheetah is simply a variety of the common cheetah and not a separate species. This case is similar to that of the black panthers.[42] The appearance is caused by a mutation in a recessive gene. As a result, if two mating cheetahs have the same gene, then a quarter of their offspring can be expected to be king cheetahs.[12]

Characteristics Edit

File:Cheetah portrait Whipsnade Zoo.jpg

The cheetah is a felid with several distinctive featuresTemplate:Sndsa slender body, deep chest, spotted pelage, a small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and a long spotted tail.[48] Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats.[12] The head-and-body length ranges from Template:Convert/–.[48] Adult cheetahs average Template:Convert/–Script error at the shoulder, and weigh Template:Convert/–.[48][49] It is taller than the leopard, which stands nearly Template:Convert/– at the shoulder. The weight range of the cheetah overlaps with that of the leopard, which weighs Template:Convert/–. On the other hand, the cheetah is significantly shorter than the lion, whose average height is nearly Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff. Moreover, it is much lighter than the lion, among which females weigh Template:Convert/kg and the much heavier males weigh Template:Convert/kg.[48] Based on measurements, the smallest cheetahs have been reported from the Sahara, northeastern Africa and Iran.[15] A sexually dimorphic species, males are generally larger than females.[50]

The head is small and rounded.[51] Saharan cheetah have narrow canine faces.[15] Small, short, and rounded, the ears are marked by black patches on the back; the edges and base of the ears are tawny. The high-set eyes have round pupils.[50][52] The whiskers, shorter and fewer in number than those of other felids, are fine and inconspicuous.[53] The pronounced tear streaks are unique to the cheetah. These streaks originate from the corner of the eyes and run down the nose to the mouth. Their role is obscureTemplate:Sndsthey may be serving as a shield for the eyes against the sun's glare, a helpful feature as the cheetah hunts mainly during the day; another purpose could be to define facial expressions.[15]

File:Cheetah Kruger.jpg

Basically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat of the cheetah is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. The upper parts are in stark contrast to the underbelly, which is completely white.[48] Each spot measures nearly Template:Convert/- across.[54] Every cheetah has a unique pattern of spots on its coat; hence, this serves as a distinct identity for each individual.[18][15][54] Cheetah fur is short and often coarse. Fluffy fur covers the chest and the ventral side.[48] Several colour morphs of the cheetah have been identified, including melanistic and albino forms.[55] Black cheetah have been observed in Kenya and Zambia. In 1877–1878, English zoologist Philip Sclater described two partially albino specimens from South Africa.[12] A ticked (tabby) cheetah was photographed in Kenya in 2012.[56] Juveniles are typically dark with long, loose, blue to grey hair.[48] A short mane, about Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff long, on the neck and the shoulders, is all that remains of the cape in adults.[12] The exceptionally long and muscular tail measures Template:Convert/–, and ends in a bushy white tuft.[57] While the first two-thirds of the tail are covered in spots, the final part is marked with four to six dark rings or stripes.[12][54] The arrangement of the terminal stripes of the tail differs among individuals, but the stripe patterns of siblings are very similar. In fact, the tail of an individual will typically resemble its siblings' to a greater extent than it resembles its mother's or any other individual's.[12]

The cheetah is sometimes confused with the leopard, and can be distinguished by its small round spots in contrast to the leopard's rosettes[58] in addition, the leopard lacks the tear streaks of the cheetah.[59] The cougar possesses neither the tear streaks nor the spotted coat pattern of the cheetah.[18] The serval has a form very similar to that of the cheetah but is significantly smaller. Moreover, it has a shorter tail and spots that fuse to form stripes on the back.[60]

Anatomy Edit

File:Acinonyx jubatus 02 MWNH 717.jpg

Being in the genus Acinonyx, the morphology of the cheetah differs notably from the big cats (genus Panthera).[61] The face and the jaw are unusually shortened and the sagittal crest is poorly developed, possibly to reduce weight and enhance speed. In fact, the skull resembles that of the smaller cats. Another point of similarity to the small cats is the long and flexible spine, in contrast to the stiff and short one of other large felids.[62] A 2001 study of felid morphology stated that the truncation of the development of the middle phalanx bone in the cheetah at a relatively younger age than other felids could be a major reason for the peculiar morphology of the cheetah.[61] The cheetah appears to show convergent evolution with canids in morphology as well as behaviour. For example, the cheetah has a relatively long snout, long legs and deep chest, tough foot pads and blunt, semi-retractable claws; moreover, its hunting behaviour resembles that of canids.[63] In the 2001 study, it was observed that the claws of cheetah have features intermediate between those of felids and the wolf.[61] In the Puma lineage, the cheetah's skull morphology is similar to that of the pumaTemplate:Sndsboth have short, wide skullsTemplate:Sndswhile that of the jaguarundi is different.[64]

File:Cheetah on a Farm in Namibia.jpg

The cheetah has a total of 30 teeth; the dental formula is Template:DentalFormula. The deciduous dentition is Template:DentalFormula. The sharp, narrow cheek teeth help in tearing flesh, whereas the small and flat canine teeth bite the throat of the prey to suffocate it. Males have slightly bigger heads with wider incisors and longer mandibles than females.[18] The muscles between the skull and jaw are short, and thus do not allow the cheetah to open its mouth as much as other cats.[12] Digitigrade animals, the cheetah have tough foot pads that make it convenient to run on firm ground. The hind legs are longer than the forelegs. The relatively longer metacarpals, metatarsals (of the lower leg), radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula increase the length of each jump. The straightening of the flexible vertebral column also adds to the length.[18]

Cheetahs have a high concentration of nerve cells, arranged in a band in the centre of the eyes. This arrangement, called a "visual streak", significantly enhances the sharpness of the vision. Among the felids, the visual streak is most concentrated and efficient in the cheetah.[62] The nasal passages are short and large; the smallness of the canines helps to accommodate the large nostrils.[18] The cheetah is unable to roar due to the presence of a sharp-edged vocal fold within the larynx.[18][65]

The paws of the cheetah are narrower than those of other felids.[18] The slightly curved claws lack a protective sheath and are weakly retractable (semi-retractable).[48][50] This is a major point of difference between the cheetah and the big cats, which have fully retractable claws, and a similarity to canids.[62] Additionally, the claws of the cheetah are shorter as well as straighter than those of other cats.[12] Absence of protection makes the claws blunt;[15] however, the large and strongly curved dewclaw is remarkably sharp.[66]

Ecology and behaviour Edit

<div class="thumb tright" style="width: Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".px; ">

<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">

Cheetahs rest in shade in the Okavango Delta, Botswana
<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">
A group of cheetahs at Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa

</div> </div> </div> Cheetahs are diurnal (active mainly during the day),[48] whereas leopards, tigers, and lions are nocturnal (active mainly at night);[67][68][69] diurnality allows better observation and monitoring of the animal.[40] Hunting is the major activity throughout the day; peaks are observed during dawn and dusk indicating crepuscular tendencies.[15] Groups rest in grassy clearings after dusk, though males and juveniles often roam around at night. The cheetah is an alert animal; individuals often inspect their vicinity at observation points such as elevations. Even while resting, they take turns at keeping a lookout.[12]

Social organisation Edit

Apart from the lion, the cheetah is the only cat that is gregarious; however, female cheetahs tend to remain solitary.[51] Tim Caro, of the University of California, Davis, identified the various social classes and their longevity. Pregnant and nursing females, a few adolescents, and males who have not joined any groups are typically solitary. Non-lactating females, their cubs, adolescent siblings, and several males will form their own groups. A loose association between individuals of the opposite sex can be observed during the breeding season.[40] These social groups typically keep away from one another.[50]

Adult males are typically gregarious despite their territoriality, and may group together for life and form "coalitions". These groups collectively defend their territories. In most cases, a coalition will comprise brothers born in the same litter who stayed together after weaning.[70] However, if a cub is the only male in the litter, then two or three lone males may form a small group, or a lone male may join an existing group. Males in coalitions establish territories that ensure maximum access to females. Solitary males may or may not be territorial. Some males alternate between solitude and coalitions, whichever ensures encounters with a greater number of females.[15] Although a coalition, due to its larger membership, demands a greater amount of resources than do the solitary males or their groups, the coalition has a greater chance of encountering and acquiring females for mating.[40]

Females are not territorial, and live alone or with their offspring. Juveniles form mixed-sex groups after weaning, but most of the young females stay back with their mother, with whom they do not show any significant interaction. Males eventually mature and try to acquire territories.[48][51]

Home ranges and territories Edit

<div class="thumb tright" style="width: Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".px; ">

<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">

Male marking his territory in southern Namibia
<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">
Female with her cubs in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

</div> </div> </div> Males in coalitions establish territories in locations that ensure maximum access to females.[15] Males exhibit marking behaviourTemplate:Sndsterritories, termite mounds, trees, common tracks and junctions, and trees are marked by urine, faeces, and claw scratches.[70] The sizes can be location specific. For example, territories range from Template:Convert/toScript error in the Serengeti, while in the Phinda Private Game Reserve, the size can be Template:Convert/toScript error. Territorial solitary males establish considerably larger territories, as large as Template loop detected: Template:Convert/km2Script error in the Serengeti or Template loop detected: Template:Convert/km2Script error in central Namibia. A 1987 study of the social organisation in males showed that territoriality depends on the size and age of the males and the membership of the coalition. It concluded that solitary as well as grouped males have a nearly equal chance of coming across females, but the males in coalitions are notably healthier and have better chances of survival than their solitary counterparts.[71] In the Serengeti, only 4% of the solitary males hold territories, while those who joined coalitions were far more successful. The average period for which territories are held is four months for singletons, seven-and-a-half months for pairs, and 22 months for trios.[48]

Males exhibit pronounced marking behaviourTemplate:Sndsterritories, termite mounds, trees, common tracks, and junctions are marked by urine, faeces, and claw scratches.[70] Males marking their territory by urination stand less than a metre away from a tree or rock surface with the tail raised, pointing the penis either horizontally backward or 60° upward.[40] Territorial clashes can take place between two coalitions, or coalitions and solitary males; fights, however, are rarely gruesome. Another major reason for fights is to acquire dominance in the breeding season. These can even involve cannibalism.[15]

Unlike male and other felines, female cheetahs do not establish territories. Instead, they live in unguarded areas, known as "home ranges". Although home ranges often overlap, there is hardly any interaction between the females. Females are regular visitors to male territories.[15] The size of a home range depends mainly on the availability of prey. The greater the density of prey animals in an area, the smaller the home range of a female cheetah there. In areas with nomadic prey animals (such as the Thomson's gazelle in the Serengeti and the springbok in the Kalahari Desert), the home ranges cover hundreds of square kilometres. In contrast, home ranges are merely Template:Convert/- large where sedentary prey, such as the impala in the Kruger National Park, is available.[51]

Vocalisations Edit


The cheetah is a vocal felid.[72] A wide variety of cheetah vocalisations have been identified by several terms, but most of these lack a detailed acoustic description, which makes it difficult to assess reliably which term denotes which sound. In 2010 Robert Eklund (of the University of Göteborg, Sweden) and colleagues published a detailed report on the purring of the cheetah and compared it with that observed in other felids.[73] The cheetah purrs when content, or to greet known individuals. A characteristic of purring is that it is realised on both egressive and ingressive airstreams.[74][75][76][77][78] Other vocalisations Eklund identified include:[79]

  • Growling: Often accompanied by hissing and spitting, the cheetah growls to show its annoyance, or when faced with danger. A study showed that growls consist of numerous short pulses with a combined duration of up to five seconds.[80]
  • Moaning or yowling: This is an escalated version of growling and is often combined with it. It is typically displayed when the danger increases. A study found that yowls could last as long as two seconds.[80]
  • Agonistic vocalisations: Eklund used this term as a reference to a combination of growls, moans, and hisses that is followed by spitting, a feature more conspicuous in cheetah than in other cats. In addition to spitting, the cheetah will hit the ground with its front paws.

R. D. Estes has listed, in addition to the aforementioned vocalisations, some other sounds made by the cheetah:[48]

  • Bleating: Similar to the meow of the domestic cat, the cheetah can bleat, and sometimes moan, when a larger predator deprives it of its prey.
  • Chirping or stutter-barking: A cheetah chirps when excited (for instance, when gathered around a kill). This vocalisation can also be used at social meetings, during courtship, or in attempting to find another; the chirp of a mother searching for her cubs, which sounds more like the yelp of a dog than the chirp of a bird, can be heard up to Template:Convert/km away. A study estimated the chirp's total duration as 0.09 to 0.5 seconds.[80]
  • Churring: The purpose of this sound is similar to that of the chirp. It may resemble a growl. Zoologist Jonathan Kingdon considered the chirp of the cheetah as similar to the soft roar of the lion, and its churr as the latter's loud roar. The churr, is staccato and has a shorter range than the chirp. A study showed that churrs comprise 3Script errorto 15 separate pulses and last 0.1Script errorto 1.3 seconds.[80]
  • Mother-cub vocalisations: Apart from chirping, mothers use some other sounds to interact with their cubs. A repeated ihn ihn is used to gather the cubs, while a prr prr is used to guide them on a journey. A low-pitched alarm call is used to warn the cubs to stand still in the presence of danger.
  • Whirring: This sound is produced by cubs bickering over a kill; the pitch rises with the intensity of the quarrel, and ends on a harsh note.

Other methods Edit

File:Two cheetahs together.jpg

Scent plays a significant role in olfactory communication. Cheetahs often investigate urine-marked places (territories or common landmarks) for a long time by crouching on their forelegs and carefully smelling the place. Then the male will itself urinate there and sniff at its own scent before leaving. Other observing individuals will repeat the ritual. Females may also show marking behaviour but less prominently than the males. Females in oestrus will show maximum urine-marking, and her excrement can attract males from far off.[48][50]

Social meetings are marked by mutual sniffing in oral and genital areas, grooming one another, rubbing the cheeks, and face-licking. Further physical contact has not been observed.[48]

The tear streaks are a means of visual communication. The tear streaks combined with the black lips and the contrasting white fur give the face a striking appearance and form clear expressions when viewed from a close range. The ears and the face are obscure from a distance, and so are the expressions. On the other hand, the tail is quite conspicuous and is probably used by mothers to direct juveniles to follow them.[48]

Display behaviour Edit

Cheetahs engage in several displays during fights, hunting, or self-defence. Prior to a sprint, the cheetah will hold its head down, with aggression on its face, and approach the target in a stiff gait. The aggressive expression is maintained during the run. To defend itself or its prey, a cheetah will hold its body low to the ground, and produce a snarl with its mouth wide open, the eyes staring threateningly ahead and the ears folded backward. This may be accompanied by moans, hisses, and growls. In more severe cases, the ground is hit with the paws. Fights are characterised by biting, tearing out the fur and attempts at strangling on both sides.[48][81]

Hunting and competitors Edit

The cheetah is a carnivore that prefers medium-sized prey with a body mass ranging from Template:Convert/toScript error. Blesbok, duiker, Grant's gazelle, impala, reedbuck, springbok, and Thomson's gazelle are some of the common targets of the cheetah. Other prey animals include the bat-eared fox, bushbuck, kudu, hartebeest, nyala, oribi, roan antelope, steenbok, sable antelope, and waterbuck; they prey less frequently on the African buffalo, gemsbok, giraffe, ostrich, warthog, wildebeest, and zebra.[12][15][82][83] A study showed that a major proportion of the diet of Asiatic cheetahs consists of livestock; local species such as chinkara, desert hare, goitered gazelle, ibex, rodents, and wild sheep are also hunted.[84] Generally, only groups of cheetahs will attempt to kill large animals such as hartebeest,[15][48] although mothers with young cubs will attempt to secure a large prey all by themselves.[40] There are no records of cheetah killing human beings.[15][62] The diet of a cheetah depends on the area in which it lives. For example, on the East African plains, its preferred prey is the Thomson's gazelle, somewhat smaller than the cheetah. In contrast, in Kwa-Zulu Natal the preferred prey is the significantly larger nyala, males of which can weigh up to Template:Convert/kgScript error.[62] They do, however, opt for young and adolescent targets, which make up about 50% of the cheetah diet despite constituting only a small portion of the prey population.[12]

<div class="thumb tright" style="width: Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "[".px; ">

<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">

A South African cheetah suffocating an impala by a throat bite at Timbavati
<div style=" margin: 1px; width: Expression error: Missing operand for +.px">
Cheetahs defending springbok kill from a brown hyena in South Africa

</div> </div> </div> Cheetahs hunt primarily throughout the day, but geographical variations exist. For instance, cheetahs in the Sahara and the Masai Mara hunt after sunset to escape the high temperatures of the day. In the Serengeti they hunt when the lions and hyenas are inactive.[12] A study in Nairobi National Park in Kenya showed that the success of the hunt depends on the species, age, sex, and habitat of the prey, and the size of the hunting herd or the efficiency of the hunting individual.[85] Cheetahs hunt by vision rather than by scent. Prey is located from observation points or while roaming. Animals toward the edges of the herd are preferred. The cheetah will stalk their prey to within Template:Convert/–Script error; it will try to approach it as closely as possible while concealing itself in cover, sometimes even up to within Template:Convert/mScript error of the prey. The cheetah will crouch and move slowly while stalking, occasionally becoming motionless.[12] The chase usually lasts less than a minute; if the cheetah fails to make a kill quickly, it will give up. Cheetahs have an average hunting success rate of 40 to 50%.[86][87]

Cheetahs kill their prey by tripping it during the chase; the cheetah can use its strong dewclaw to knock the prey off its balance. To kill medium- to large-sized prey, the cheetah bites the prey's throat to suffocate it. A bite on the back of the neck or the snout is enough to kill smaller prey.[12] The prey is then taken to a shaded place; the cheetah, highly exhausted after the chase, rests beside the kill and pants heavily for nearly five to 55 minutes. Groups of cheetah devour the kill peacefully, though minor growling may be observed. Cheetahs not involved in hunting will immediately start eating.[40] Cheetahs can consume large quantities of food. In a study at the Etosha National Park (Namibia), the cheetah consumed as much as Template:Convert/kg within two hours and stayed close to the remains for 11Script errorhours.[88] Cheetahs move their heads from side to side so that the sharp carnassial teeth effectively tear the flesh, which can then be swallowed without chewing. They typically begin with the hindquarters, and then progress toward the abdomen and the spine. Rib bones are chewed on at the ends, and the limbs are not generally torn apart while eating.[12]

The cheetah, especially mothers with young cubs, are highly vigilant; they need to remain on a lookout for large carnivores who might steal the prey or harm the cubs, and for any potential prey.[12][89] In Africa, the cheetah surrenders its kill to sturdier carnivores such as lions, leopards, spotted and brown hyenas, and wild dogs.[51] Cheetahs lose around 10 to 15% of their kills to other predators;[12] the percentage was found to be as high as 50% in a 1986 study.[86] Cheetahs have rarely been observed to feed on the kills of other carnivores; this may be due to vultures and spotted hyena adroitly capturing and consuming heavy carcasses within a short time.[40][90]

In Central Asia, the cheetah competed with grey wolf, and to a lesser extent also with striped hyena, leopard and caracal.[33][91][92]

Speed and acceleration Edit

Adaptations Edit

File:Gepardjagt1 (Acinonyx jubatus).jpg

The cheetah's thin and light body makes it well-suited to short, explosive bursts of speed, rapid acceleration, and an ability to execute extreme changes in direction while moving at high speed. These adaptations account for much of the cheetah's ability to catch fast-moving prey.[93][94]

The cheetah is the fastest land animal.[95][96][97][98][99][100] It was called the "felid version of the greyhound", as both have similar morphology and the ability to reach tremendous speeds in a shorter time than other mammals.[48][57]

The large nasal passages ensure fast flow of sufficient air, and the enlarged heart and lungs allow the enrichment of blood with oxygen in a short time. This allows cheetahs to rapidly regain their stamina after a chase.[18][12] During a typical chase, their respiratory rate increases from 60 to 150 breaths per minute.[86] While running, in addition to having good traction due to their semi-retractable claws, cheetahs use their tail as a rudder-like means of steering that enables them to make sharp turns, necessary to outflank antelopes that often change direction to escape during a chase.[12][51] The protracted claws increase grip over the ground, while foot pads make the sprint more convenient over tough ground. The tight binding of the tibia and the fibula restrict rotation about the lower leg, thus stabilising the animal throughout the sprint; the downside, however, is that this reduces climbing efficiency. The pendulum-like motion of the scapula increases the stride length and assists in shock absorption. The extension of the vertebral column can add as much as Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoffScript error to the length of a stride.[101][102] During more than half of the time of the sprint, the animal has all four limbs in the air; this also contributes to the stride length.[103]

The cheetah runs no more than Template:Convert/mScript error at the speed of Template:Convert/toScript error; it very rarely runs at this high speed as most chases are within Template:Convert/mScript error.[104]

By 1973, cheetah sprinting distance was thought to be limited by the building up of excessive body heat.[105] A biologging study with six free-living cheetahs in Namibia revealed that their elevated body temperature did not compromise their chasing prey. After successful hunts, they had a 0.6 to 0.8 °C higher body temperature than after unsuccessful chases.[106]

Recorded values Edit

File:Cheetahs on the Edge (Director's Cut).ogv

In general, the speed of a hunting cheetah averages Template:Convert/km/hScript error during a chase,[48] interspersed with a few short bursts when the speed may vary between Template:Convert/andScript error; the most reliable measurement of the typical speed during a short chase is Template:Convert/km/hScript error.[12][69][107][108] However, this value of the maximum speed, first measured in 1957 by Kurt Severin, is disputed,[107][12] with more recent measurements using solar-powered GPS collars in 367 hunts showing a maximum speed of Template:Convert/km/hScript error while hunting.[109][110] The speeds attained by the cheetah may be only slightly greater than those achieved by the pronghorn Template:Convert/km/hScript error[111] and the springbok Template:Convert/km/hScript error.[112] Yet the cheetah has a greater probability of succeeding in the chase due to its exceptional accelerationTemplate:Sndsit can attain a speed of Template:Convert/km/hScript error in just two seconds.[12] One stride or jump of a galloping cheetah averages Template:Convert/m.[113] Similarly, the ability to change direction rapidly is pivotal in ensuring hunting success.[94][114][115] Cheetahs typically walk at Template:Convert/–.[69]

Speed and acceleration values for the hunting cheetah may be different from those for the non-hunting because, while engaged in the chase, the cheetah is more likely to be twisting and turning and may be running through vegetation.[94][116] In 2012 an 11-year-old cheetah from the Cincinnati Zoo named Sarah made a world record by running Template:Convert/mScript error in 5.95 seconds over a set run, during which she ran a recorded maximum speed of Template:Convert/km/hScript error.[113][117] A study of five wild cheetahs (three females, two males) during hunting reported a maximum speed of Template:Convert/km/hScript error, with an average of Template:Convert/toScript error. Speed can be increased by almost Template:Convert/km/hScript error in a single stride. The average chase is Template:Convert/mScript error and the maximum ranges from Template:Convert/toScript error.[94]

Reproduction Edit

File:A nice little cheetah.JPG
File:Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) cub.jpg

Cheetahs breed throughout the year; they are induced ovulators. Females become sexually mature at 21 to 22 months of age.[18] Females are polyoestrusTemplate:Sndsthey have an oestrus ("heat") cycle every 12Script errordays (this can vary from 10Script errorto 20 days),[118] each oestrus lasting one to three days. A female can give birth again after 17 to 20 months; however, on the loss of a whole litter mothers can mate again.[50] Urine-marking in males becomes more pronounced when a female in their vicinity comes into oestrus. Males fight among one another to secure access to the female; even males in a coalition may show some aggression toward one another on approaching a female.[119] One male eventually wins dominance over the others. Mating, observed mainly at night, begins with the male approaching the female, who lies down on the ground. No courtship behaviour is observed; the male immediately secures hold of the female's nape and copulation takes place. The pair then ignore each other and part ways. However, they meet and copulate a few more times within the next few days.[48][120] Polyandrous, females can mate with several males.[121] The mean number of motile sperm in a single ejaculation is nearly 25.3Script errormillion.[18]

Gestation lasts nearly three months. The number of cubs born can vary from one to eight, though the common number is three to five. Birth takes place in a sheltered place such as thick vegetation. Each cub weighs nearly Template:Convert/–Script error at birth; the eyes, shut at birth, open in fourScript errorto 11 days. Newborn cubs can crawl and spit; they start walking by the age of two weeks. Their nape, shoulders and back are thickly covered with long bluish grey hair. This downy underlying fur, called a "mantle", gives them a Mohawk-type appearance; this fur is shed as the cheetah grows older.[40] It has been suggested that this mane gives a cheetah cub the appearance of the honey badger, and could act as a camouflage in both animals.[122] Cheetah cubs are highly vulnerable during the first few weeks of their life; mothers keep their cubs hidden in dense vegetation for the first month.[48]

Generation length of the cheetah is six years.[123]

Cubs start following their mothers at six weeks. The mother frequently shifts the cubs to new locations.[48] A study of play behaviour of cheetah cubs showed that cubs tend to play after nursing or while they are on the move with their mothers. Play involves plenty of agility; attacks are seldom lethal. Playing cubs stay near their mothers. The study further revealed that while the cubs showed improvement in catching each other as they grew up, the ability to crouch and hide did not develop remarkably. Thus, it was suggested that play helps develop only certain aspects of predator defence.[124] Weaning occurs at three to six months of age. The mother brings kills to her cubs; the cubs might purr as the mother licks them clean after the meal. Cubs as young as six months try to capture small prey like hares and juvenile gazelles. However, they may have to wait until as long as 15 months of age to make a successful kill on their own.[48][50]

The offspring may stay with the mother for 13 to 20 months, associating with one another and feeding on kills together. After weaning, juveniles may form mixed-sex herds; young females may stay back with their mother, but there is hardly any interaction between the mother and daughters. The females in the mixed-sex herd gradually move out as they near sexual maturity.[48] In the Serengeti, average age of independence of 70 observed litters was 17.1 months. Young females had their first litters at the age of about 2.4 years and subsequent litters about 20 months later.[125] The lifespan of wild cheetahs is 14 to 15 years for females; their reproductive cycle typically ends by 12 years of age. Males generally live as long as 10 years.[1]

Mortality Edit

High mortality rates have been recorded in the Serengeti. In a 1994 study, nearly 77% of litters died before eight weeks of birth, and nearly 83% of those alive could not make it to adolescence (14Script errorweeks). Lions emerged as the major predator of juveniles, accounting for nearly 78% of the deaths. The study concluded that the survival rate of cubs until weaning was a mere 4.8%. This was attributed to the open terrain of the region, which does not allow cheetahs to conceal themselves.[126] Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other large mammals.[127][128]

It has been suggested that the significant lack of genetic diversity in cheetahs is a cause of poor quality and production of sperm, and birth defects such as cramped teeth, kinked tails, and bent limbs. Cheetahs do have low fertility rates, but they appear to have flourished for thousands of years with these low levels of genetic variance. Cheetah expert Laurie Marker points out that the high level of genetic uniformity would mean that if an infectious disease surfaced in a population, all of them have (or lack) the same level of immunity. In 1982, 60% of the cheetah population in the Wildlife Safari (Oregon, United States) died due to a peritonitis epidemic.[129]

Distribution and habitat Edit

The cheetah inhabits a variety of habitats. In Africa, it has been observed in dry forests, scrub forests, and savannahs.[40] In prehistoric times, the cheetah was distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe. Gradually, it vanished from Europe. Nearly 500 years ago, the cheetah was still common throughout Africa, though it avoided deserts and tropical forests. In Eurasia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and the Ganga and Indus river valleys in South Asia sheltered large numbers of cheetahs.[12] However, today the cheetah has been exterminated from the majority of its earlier range. The IUCN estimates that the total expanse of the range of the cheetah in earlier times was approximately Template:Convert/sqkmScript error; the range (as of 2015) has since then reduced to Template:Convert/sqkmScript error, a substantial decline of 89%.[1]

Africa Edit

The African cheetah is found mainly in the eastern and southern regions; its presence across the continent has declined to a mere 10% of the historical range. The range in eastern Africa has reduced to 6% of its original extent, so that presently it is distributed in an area of Template:Convert/sqkmScript error.[1] In the Horn of Africa, the cheetah occurs in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.[130] The range has not reduced as much in the southern part of the continent, where it occurs in an area of Template:Convert/sqkmScript error, 22% of its original range. Significant populations thrive in south-western Angola, Botswana, Malawi,[25] south-western Mozambique, Namibia, northern South Africa, southern Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Very few isolated populations occur in the Sahara; the population density in this region is as low as two to three individuals per Template:Convert/sqkmScript error. They occur in very low numbers in northern and western Africa.

The distribution of prey may influence habitat preferences; in a study in the Kruger National Park, female cheetahs were found to spend a significant amount of time in woodlands, where impala occurred. It was suggested that though the forested area was unsuitable for hunting, the females preferred woodlands to encounter more impala. Male coalitions, on the other hand, shunned dense habitats and spent most of the time in open savannahs. An explanation given for this was that the coalitions prefer larger prey than impala.[131] Although they do not prefer montane regions, cheetahs can occur at elevations as high as Template:Convert/mScript error. An open area with some cover, such as diffused bushes, is probably ideal for the cheetah because it needs to stalk and pursue its prey over a distance, exploiting its speed. This also minimises the risk of encountering larger carnivores. Complete lack of cover, however, can be a cause of prey loss and mortality.[40][132]

Asia Edit

In the past, the cheetah ranged across vast stretches in Asia, from the Arabian Peninsula in the west to the Indian subcontinent in the east, and as far north as the Caspian and Aral Seas.[1][33] Today, the cheetah has been extirpated in the majority of its historic range, except Iran and possibly a few areas in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.[133][134]

Status and threats Edit

The cheetah has been classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN; it is listed under AppendixScript errorI of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and AppendixScript errorI of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). In 2014 the CITES Standing Committee recognised the cheetah as a "species of priority" in their strategies in northeastern Africa to counter wildlife trafficking.[135] As of 2015, the IUCN gives the total number of surviving individuals as nearly 6,700.[1] Regional estimates have been given as: 1,960 in eastern Africa (as of 2007); 4,190 in southern Africa (as of 2007);[22][23] and 440 in western, central, and northern Africa (as of 2012). The southern half of the continent, therefore, is home to the largest number of cheetah. 29Script errorsub-populations have been identified, of which most consist of no more than 500 individuals.[1] A small population of 60 to 100 individuals was reported from Iran in 2007.[31] Populations are feared to be declining, especially those of adults.[1]

The cheetah is threatened by habitat loss through agricultural and industrial expansion; moreover, the species apparently requires a large area to live in as indicated by its low population densities.[1] It appears to be less capable of coexisting with humans than the leopard.[136] Human interference disturbs hunting and feeding of cheetah.[50] With 76% of its range consisting of unprotected land, the cheetah is often targeted by farmers and pastoralists who attempt to protect their livestock. However, cheetah is not known to prey on livestock.[137] Game hunters may also try to harm cheetahs as they deprive them of valuable game. Roadkill is another threat, especially in areas where roads have been constructed near natural habitat or protected areas. Cases of roadkill involving cheetahs have been reported from Kalmand, Iran, Touran National Park, and Bafq. The threat posed by infectious diseases may be minor, given the low population densities and hence the reduced chance of infection.[1]

In 2016, it was estimated that there are just 7,100 cheetahs remaining in the wild, and simulation modelling suggested that they are at risk of extinction. The authors suggested a re-categorisation on the IUCN Red List for the species from vulnerable to endangered.[138][139]

Conservation measures Edit

The IUCN has recommended co-operation between countries across the cheetah's range to minimise the conflict between cheetahs and human beings.[1] A 2016 study showed that ecotourism can have a significantly positive impact on the conservation of the cheetah. Although the requirement of space for the habitat would have to be compromised in most cases, establishment of private reserves for cheetahs and ensuring the absence of predators and poachers could be a successful conservation measure.[140] Additionally, the financial benefits accrued and the awareness generated can further aid the cause of the cheetah.[1] At the same time, the animals should not be unnecessarily handled or disturbed, as cheetahs are particularly sensitive to human interference.[50]

In AfricaEdit

The Range Wide Conservation Program for Cheetah and African Wild Dogs (RWCP), the brainchild of Sarah Durant and Rosie Woodroffe (of the Zoological Society of London), was started in 2007 with the primary aim of ensuring better conservation measures for the cheetah and the wild dogTemplate:Sndstwo species with very low population densities. A joint initiative by the ZSL, the Wildlife Conservation Society, and the IUCN Cat Specialist Group, the program has among its major goals a review of the conservation policies adopted by the South African countries, and study and action on illegal hunting and trade of the cheetah.[141][142] In a 2007 publication, Durant emphasised the role of land management and improvement in connectivity across the range in cheetah conservation, in the lack of which the populations might face severe fragmentation.[143]

Benin (2014),[144] Botswana (2007),[145] Chad (2015),[146] Ethiopia (2010),[147] Kenya (2007),[146] Mozambique (2010),[148][149] Namibia (2013),[1] Niger (2012),[146] South Africa (2009),[150] South Sudan (2009),[151] Tanzania (2013),[152] Zambia (2009),[153] and Zimbabwe (2009)[154] have formulated action plans for the conservation of the cheetah (the years in which the workshops were held are given in brackets).

In Asia Edit

File:Koushki 2.jpg

In the 20th century, the populations of cheetah in India saw a drastic fall. The last physical evidence of the cheetah in India was thought to be three individuals, all shot by the Maharajah of Surguja (a man also noted for holding a record for shooting 1,360 tigers), in 1947 in eastern Madhya Pradesh,[155] but a female was sighted in Koriya district, present-day Chhattisgarh, in 1951.[156] During the early 2000s, scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad, proposed a plan to clone Asiatic cheetahs obtained from Iran. India asked Iran to transport one live pair to India, or, if that was not possible, allow them to collect sperm and eggs of the cheetah pair in Iran itself.[157] However, Iran rejected both proposals.[158]

In September 2009, the then Minister of Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh, assigned the Wildlife Trust of India and the Wildlife Institute of India with the task of examining the potential of cheetah reintroduction in the nation. The report, submitted in 2010, showed that the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary and Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh, and Shahgarh Landscape and Desert National Park in Rajasthan have a high potential to support reintroduced cheetah populations. These areas were found to be spacious; of these four areas, the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary had the largest available area, Template:Convert/sqkm. Moreover, these were rich in prey availability. The Sanjay National Park, though comprising an area of Template:Convert/sqkm and having supported cheetah populations before the independence of India in 1947, is no longer suitable for the cheetah due to low prey density and risks of poaching.[159]

In 2001 the Iranian government collaborated with the Cheetah Conservation Fund, the IUCN, Panthera, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Wildlife Conservation Society on the Conservation of Asiatic Cheetah Project (CACP) to protect the natural habitat of the Asiatic cheetah and its prey, to ensure that development projects do not hamper its survival, and to highlight the plight of the Asiatic cheetah.[160][161] Iran declared 31Script errorAugust as National Cheetah Day in 2006.[162]

Interaction with human beings Edit

Taming Edit

File:War trophies Deir el Bahari Wellcome L0027402.jpg

The cheetah shows little aggression toward human beings, and can be easily tamed, as it has been since antiquity.[40] Reliefs in the Deir el-Bahari temple complex tell of an expedition by Egyptians to the Land of Punt during the reign of the pharaoh Hatshepsut (1507–1458Script errorBC) that fetched, among other things, animals called "panthers" for Egypt. Two types of "panthers" were depicted in these sculptures: leashed cheetahs, referred to as "panthers of the north", and sturdy leopards, referred to as "panthers of the south". During the New Kingdom (16th to 11th centuriesScript errorBC), cheetahs were common pet animals for the royalty, who adorned the animals with ornate collars and leashes.[4] The Egyptians would use their dogs to bring the concealed prey out in the open, after which a cheetah would be set upon it to kill it.[163] A Sumerian seal dating back to nearly 3000Script errorBC, featuring a leashed animal resembling a cheetah, has fuelled speculation that the cheetah might have been first domesticated and used for hunting in Sumer (Mesopotamia).[53][164][165] However, Thomas T. Allsen (of The College of New Jersey) argues that the depicted animal might not be a cheetah given its largely dog-like features; moreover, the background gives an impression of a montane area, which the cheetah does not typically inhabit.[166]

File:Cappella dei magi, giuliano de' medici.jpg

Mainly two kinds of theories have been put forth to explain the subsequent expansion of the cheetah into Asia, Europe, and the rest of Africa.[4] Historians who accept the Sumerian origin of the domesticated cheetahTemplate:Sndssuch as Heinz F. Friederichs and Burchard BrentjesTemplate:Sndshold that the animal gradually spread out to central and northern Africa, from where it reached India. On the other hand, historians such as Frederick E. Zeuner accept the Egyptian origin and state that the cheetah gradually spread into central Asia, Iran, and India.[4] In the third centuryScript errorAD, Roman author Claudius Aelianus wrote of tame panthers in India and "smaller lions" that would be used for tracking and hunting; the account cannot be very reliable as Roman, as well as Greek, literature is not generally clear in its references to different types of cats.[167]

Hunting with cheetahs became more prevalent toward the seventh centuryScript errorAD. The 11th-century Clephane Horn, possibly of Byzantine origin, is believed to depict domesticated hunting cheetahs.[168] In the Middle East, the cheetah would accompany the nobility to hunts in special seats behind saddles. Cheetahs continued to be associated with royalty and elegance in western Asia until as late as the 19th century. The first phase of taming would take several weeks, in which the cheetah would be kept tethered and made to get accustomed to human beings. Next, the cheetah would be tempted with food and trained to mount horses. Finally, its hunting instincts would be aroused by slaughtering animals before it. The whole process could take as long as a year to complete. In eastern Asia, the records are confusing as regional names for the leopard and the cheetah may be used interchangeably. The earliest depiction of cheetahs from eastern Asia dates back to the Tang dynasty (7th to 10th centuriesScript errorAD); paintings depict tethered cheetahs as well as cheetahs mounted on horses. Chinese emperors would use cheetahs, as well as caracals, as gifts. In the 13th and the 14th centuries, the Yuan rulers bought numerous caracals, cheetahs, and tigers from the western parts of the empire and Muslim merchants, in return for gold, silver, cash, and silk. According to the Ming Shilu, the subsequent Ming dynasty (14th to 17th centuries) continued this practice. The cheetah gradually entered Eurasia toward the 14th century, though they never became as popular as they had in the Middle East.[4] The Mughal ruler Akbar the Great (1556–1605) is said to have kept as many as 1000 cheetahs.[86] However, his son Jahangir wrote in his memoirs, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, that only one of them gave birth to cubs.[4] Mughal rulers trained cheetahs as well as caracals in a similar way as the West Asians, and used them to hunt gameTemplate:Sndsespecially blackbuck. The rampant hunting severely affected the populations of wild animals.[169][170]

In captivity Edit

File:Acinonyx jubatus -Chester Zoo, England-8a.jpg

Mortality under captivity is generally high; reasons include stillbirths, birth defects, cannibalism, hypothermia, neglect of cubs by mothers, and infectious diseases.[171] A study comparing the health of captive and wild cheetahs noted that despite having similar genetic make-up, wild cheetahs are far healthier than their captive counterparts. The study identified possible stress factors such as restricted habitat and interaction with human beings and other carnivores, and recommended private and spacious areas for captive cheetahs.[172] A study of diseases suffered by captive cheetahs in the period 1989–92 in several North American zoos showed that hepatic veno-occlusive disease, a disease of the liver, had affected 82% of the deceased cheetahs, caused nine deaths, and occurred in 51% of living females. Chronic gastritis was detected in 91% of the population. Glomerulosclerosis, a disease of the kidneys, emerged as another significant disease, affecting 84% of the cheetahs; another renal disease, nephrosclerosis, affected 39% of the cheetahs. Feline infectious peritonitis caused two deaths. Pneumonia was a major cause for juvenile deaths.[173] Another study concluded that excess of vitaminScript errorA in their diets could result in veno-occlusive disease in their livers.[174]

Moreover, cheetahs are poor breeders in captivity, while wild individuals are far more successful.[175] In a 1992 study, females in Serengeti were found to have 95% success rate in breeding.[118] In contrast, only 20% of the North American captive cheetahs bred successfully in 1991.[176] Studies have shown that in-vitro fertilisation in cheetah poses more difficulties than are faced in the case of other cats.[177][178]

In culture Edit

File:Tizian 048.jpg

The cheetah has been widely portrayed in a variety of artistic works. In Bacchus and Ariadne, an oil painting by the 16th-century Italian painter Titian, the chariot of the Greek god Dionysus (Bacchus) is depicted as being drawn by two cheetahs. The cheetahs in the painting were previously considered to be leopards.[179] In 1764 English painter George Stubbs commemorated the gifting of a cheetah to George III by the English Governor of Madras, Sir George Pigot in his painting Cheetah with Two Indian Attendants and a Stag. The painting depicts a cheetah, hooded and collared by two Indian servants, along with a stag it was supposed to prey upon.[180][181] The 1896 painting The Caress, by the 19th-century Belgian symbolist painter Fernand Khnopff, is a representation of the myth of Oedipus and the Sphinx. It portrays a creature with a woman's head and a cheetah's body (often misidentified as a leopard's).[182]

The Bill Thomas Cheetah American sports/racing car, a Chevrolet-based coupe first designed and driven in 1963, was an attempt to challenge Carroll Shelby's Shelby Cobra in American sports car competition of the 1960s era. Due to only two dozen or fewer chassis ever being built, with only a dozen of these being complete cars, the Cheetah was never homologated for competition beyond prototype status, with its production ending in 1966.[183]

A variety of literature mentions the cheetah. In 1969 author Joy Adamson, of Born Free fame, wrote The Spotted Sphinx, a biography of her pet cheetah Pippa.[184] Hussein, An Entertainment, a novel by Patrick O'Brian set in the British Raj period in India, illustrates the practice of royalty keeping and training cheetahs to hunt antelopes.[185] The book How It Was with Dooms tells the true story of a family raising an orphaned cheetah cub named Dooms in Kenya.[186] The 2005 film Duma was loosely based on this book.[187]

The cheetah has often been featured in marketing and animation. In 1986 Frito-Lay introduced the Chester Cheetah, an anthropomorphic cheetah, as the mascot for their Cheetos.[188][189] The first release of Apple Inc.'s Mac OS X, the Mac OS X 10.0, was code-named "Cheetah"; the subsequent versions released before 2013 were all named after cats.[190] The animated series ThunderCats had a character named "Cheetara", an anthropomorphic cheetah, voiced by Lynne Lipton.[citation needed]

Comic book superheroine Wonder Woman's chief adversary is Dr.Script errorBarbara Ann Minerva, alias The Cheetah.[191]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Template:Cite iucn
  2. Template:MerriamWebsterDictionary
  3. Template:Oxford Dictionaries
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Mair, V.H. (2006). Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Hawai'i, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 116–23. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4. OCLC 62896389. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Template:MSW3 Wozencraft
  6. "Definition of Acinonyx". Dictionary and Thesaurus. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  7. Rosevear, D.R. (1974). The carnivores of West Africa. British Museum (Natural History). p. 492. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Acinonyx jubatus". IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V. et al. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group". Cat News (Special Issue 11). 
  10. Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J.. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (Reprinted ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution 44 Suppl. 1: S98–S116. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018. 
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2002). Wild Cats of the World. Chicago, USA: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 14–36. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mattern, M.Y.; McLennan, D.A. (2000). "Phylogeny and speciation of felids". Cladistics 16 (2): 232–53. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2000.tb00354.x.  Template:Open access
  14. Adams, D.B. (1979). "The Cheetah: Native American". Science 205 (4411): 1155–8. doi:10.1126/science.205.4411.1155. PMID 17735054. 
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 Hunter, L. (2015). Wild Cats of the World. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 167–176. ISBN 978-1-4729-1219-0. 
  16. Dobrynin, P.; Liu, S.; Tamazian, G.; Xiong, Z.; Yurchenko, A.A.; Krasheninnikova, K.; Kliver, S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A. (2015). "Genomic legacy of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus". Genome Biology 16: 277. doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0837-4. PMC 4676127. PMID 26653294. //  Template:Open access
  17. Leakey, L.S.B.; Hopwood, A.T. (1951). Olduvai Gorge: A Report on the Evolution of the Hand-axe Culture in Beds I-IV. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–5. 
  18. 18.00 18.01 18.02 18.03 18.04 18.05 18.06 18.07 18.08 18.09 18.10 18.11 18.12 Krausman, P.R.; Morales, S.M. (2005). "Acinonyx jubatus". Mammalian Species 771: 1–6. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2005)771[0001:aj];2.  Template:Open access
  19. 19.0 19.1 Janis, C.M.; Scott, K.M.; Jacobs, L.L. (1998). Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America (1st ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 236–40. ISBN 978-0-521-35519-3. 
  20. Van Valkenburgh, B.; Grady, F.; Kurtén, B. (1990). "The Plio-Pleistocene cheetah-like Miracinonyx inexpectatus of North America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 10 (4): 434–54. doi:10.1080/02724634.1990.10011827. 
  21. Schreber, J. C. D. (1775). 8. Der Gepard. In: Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Vol 3. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 392–393.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  23. 23.0 23.1 Purchase, G.; Marker, L.; Marnewick, K.; Klein, R.; Williams, S. (2007). "Regional assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs of cheetahs in Southern Africa". Cat News (Special Issue 3): 4–46. doi:10.5281/zenodo.158912.  Template:Open access
  24. CCF Staff (2015). "After 30-Year Civil War, Cheetah Presence in Angola Confirmed". Cheetah Conservation Fund. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Nzangaya, A. (2017). "Cheetahs reintroduced in Malawi". Malawi 24. Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  26. Dasgupta, S. (2017). "Cheetahs return to Malawi after decades". Mongabay. Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  27. Williams, S. (2007). "Status of the Cheetah in Zimbabwe". Cat News (Special Issue 3): 32–36. doi:10.5281/zenodo.158911. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  28. Williams, S. T.; Williams, K. S.; Joubert, C. J.; Hill, R. A. (2016). "The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe". PeerJ 4: e1537. doi:10.7717/peerj.1537. PMC 4728035. PMID 26819838. // 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Charruau, P.; Fernandes, C.; Orozco-terwengel, P.; Peters, J.; Hunter, L.; Ziaie, H.; Jourabchian, A.; Jowkar, H. et al. (2011). "Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates". Molecular Ecology 20 (4): 706–724. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04986.x. PMC 3531615. PMID 21214655. // 
  30. Template:IUCN
  31. 31.0 31.1 Hunter, L.; Jowkar, H.; Ziaie, H.; Schaller, G.; Balme, G.; Walzer, C.; Ostrowski, S.; Zahler, P. et al. (2007). "Conserving the Asiatic cheetah in Iran: launching the first radio-telemetry study". Cat News 46: 8–11. 
  32. Khalatbari, L., Jowkar, H., Yusefi, G. H., Brito, J. C., Ostrowski, S. (2017). "The current status of Asiatic cheetah in Iran". Cat News 66: 10–13. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Heptner, V. G.; Sludskij, A. A. (1992). "Genus of Cheetah, or Pardus". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 696–733. 
  34. Busby, G.B.J.; Gottelli, D.; Durant, S.; Wacher, T.; Marker, L.; Belbachir, F.; De Smet, K.; Belbachir-Bazi, A. et al. (2006). Parc National de L'Ahaggar survey, Algeria (March 2005), Part 5: Using molecular genetics to study the presence of endangered carnivores (November 2006). Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group.  Template:Open access
  35. Hamdine, W.; Meftah, T.; Sehki, A. (2003). "Distribution and status of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Algerian Central Sahara (Ahaggar and Tassili)". Mammalia 67 (3): 439–443. doi:10.1515/mamm.2003.67.3.439. 
  36. Template:IUCN
  37. O'Brien, S.; Roelke, M.; Marker, L; Newman, A.; Winkler, C.; Meltzer, D.; Colly, L.; Evermann, J. et al. (1985). "Genetic basis for species vulnerability in the cheetah". Science 227 (4693): 1428–34. doi:10.1126/science.2983425. 
  38. O'Brien, S.J.; Wildt, D.E.; Bush, M.; Caro, T.M.; FitzGibbon, C.; Aggundey, I.; Leakey, R.E. (1987). "East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks?". PNAS 84 (2): 508–11. PMC 304238. PMID 3467370. // 
  39. Menotti-Raymond, M.; O'Brien, S. J. (1993). "Dating the genetic bottleneck of the African cheetah". PNAS 90 (8): 3172–3176. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.8.3172. PMC 46261. PMID 8475057. // 
  40. 40.00 40.01 40.02 40.03 40.04 40.05 40.06 40.07 40.08 40.09 40.10 40.11 40.12 Caro, T. M. (1994). Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains : Group Living in an Asocial Species. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226094342. 
  41. Yuhki, N.; O'Brien, S.J. (1990). "DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history". PNAS 87 (2): 836–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.836. PMC 53361. PMID 1967831.  Template:Open access
  42. 42.0 42.1 Thompson, S. E. (1998). Built for Speed: The Extraordinary, Enigmatic Cheetah. Minneapolis, USA: Lerner Publications Co.. pp. 66–68. ISBN 978-0-8225-2854-8. 
  43. Heuvelmans, B. (1995). On the Track of Unknown Animals (3rd, revised ed.). London, UK: Kegan Paul International. pp. 500–502. ISBN 978-0-7103-0498-8. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 Pocock, R. I. (1927). "Description of a new species of cheetah (Acinonyx)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 97 (1): 245–252. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1927.tb02258.x. 
  45. Shuker, K.P.N. (1989). Mystery Cats of the World: From Blue Tigers to Exmoor Beasts. London, UK: Hale. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-7090-3706-4. 
  46. Bottriell, L.G. (1987). King Cheetah : The Story of the Quest. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-08588-6. 
  47. Kaelin, C. B.; Xu, X.; Hong, L. Z.; David, V. A., McGowan; K. A.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A.; Roelke, M. E.; Pino, J. et al. (2012). "Specifying and sustaining pigmentation patterns in domestic and wild cats". Science 337 (6101): 1536–1541. doi:10.1126/science.1220893. PMC 3709578. PMID 22997338. // 
  48. 48.00 48.01 48.02 48.03 48.04 48.05 48.06 48.07 48.08 48.09 48.10 48.11 48.12 48.13 48.14 48.15 48.16 48.17 48.18 48.19 48.20 48.21 48.22 48.23 Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates (4th ed.). Berkeley, USA: University of California Press. pp. 377–383. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0. 
  49. Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 834–836. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5 50.6 50.7 50.8 Nowak, R. M.; Kays, R. W. (2005). Walker's Carnivores of the World (Illustrated ed.). Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 270–272. ISBN 978-0-8018-8032-2. 
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 51.5 Mills, G.; Hes, L. (1997). The Complete Book of Southern African mammals (1st ed.). Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. pp. 175–7. ISBN 978-0-947430-55-9. 
  52. Kitchener, A. C.; Van Valkenburgh, B.; Yamaguchi, N. (2010). "Felid form and function". In Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J.. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (Reprinted ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 83–106. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 Montgomery, S. (2014). Chasing Cheetahs: The Race to Save Africa's Fastest Cats. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-547-81549-7. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 Arnold, C. (1989). Cheetah (1st Mulberry ed.). New York, USA: William Morrow and Company. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-688-11696-5. 
  55. Eberhart, G.M. (2002). Mysterious Creatures : A Guide to Cryptozoology. Oxford, UK: ABC-Clio. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-57607-283-7. 
  56. Mail Foreign Service (25 April 2012). "The lesser-spotted cheetah: Rare big cat without traditional markings sighted in wild for first time in nearly 100 years". Daily Mail. Retrieved 12 February 2016. 
  57. 57.0 57.1 Stuart, C.; Stuart, T. (2001). Field Guide to Mammals of Southern Africa (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Struik. p. 156. ISBN 978-1868725373. 
  58. Foley, C.; Foley, L.; Lobora, A.; De Luca, D.; Msuha, M.; Davenport, T.R.B.; Durant, S.M. (2014). A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Tanzania. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-691-16117-4. 
  59. Mivart, St. G.J. (1900). The Cat: An Introduction to the Study of Backboned Animals, Especially Mammals. London, UK: John Murray. pp. 427–429. 
  60. Schütze, H. (2002). Field Guide to the Mammals of the Kruger National Park. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-86872-594-6. 
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 Russell, A.P.; Bryant, H.N. (2001). "Claw retraction and protraction in the Carnivora: the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) as an atypical felid". Journal of Zoology 254 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000565. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 Hunter, L.; Hinde, G. (2005). Cats of Africa: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. pp. 1–172. ISBN 978-1-77007-063-9. 
  63. Henry, J.D. (2014). [[[:Template:Google Books]] Red Fox: The Catlike Canine]. Washington, D.C., US: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 978-1-58834-339-0. Template:Google Books. 
  64. Segura, V.; Prevosti, F.; Cassini, G. (2013). "Cranial ontogeny in the Puma lineage, Puma concolor, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, and Acinonyx jubatus (Carnivora: Felidae): a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 169 (1): 235–250. doi:10.1111/zoj.12047. 
  65. Hast, M.H. (1989). "The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats". Journal of Anatomy 163: 117–21. PMC 1256521. PMID 2606766.  Template:Open access
  66. Londei, T. (2000). "The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) dewclaw: specialization overlooked". Journal of Zoology 251 (4): 535–547. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00809.x.  Template:Open access
  67. Hunter, L.; Balme, G.; Walker, C.; Pretorius, K.; Rosenberg, K. (2003). "The landscape ecology of leopards (Panthera pardus) in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a preliminary project report". Ecological Journal 5: 24–30. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010.  Template:Open access
  68. Tilson, R. (2010). Tigers of the World: The Science, Politics and Conservation of Panthera tigris. Elsevier. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8155-1570-8. 
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 Schaller, G.B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predator-Prey Relations. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-73639-6. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 Kingdon, J. (2015). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals (2nd ed.). London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 403–404. ISBN 978-1-4729-1236-7. 
  71. Caro, T.M.; Collins, D.A. (1987). "Male cheetah social organization and territoriality". Ethology 74 (1): 52–64. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1987.tb00921.x. 
  72. Estrada, J.; Elwood, A. (1993). Lions (Hardbound ed.). San Diego, USA: Wildlife Education. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-937934-81-4. 
  73. Eklund, R.; Peters, G.; Dulthie, E. D.; Koenig, F. A. (2010). "An acoustic analysis of purring in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and in the domestic cat (Felis catus)". Proceedings of FONETIK 2010: 17–22.  Template:Open access
  74. Eklund, R.; Peters, G.; Weise, F.; Munro, S. (2012). "A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cheetahs". Proceedings of FONETIK 2012: 41–44.  Template:Open access
  75. Eklund, R.; Peters, G. (2013). "A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in juvenile, subadult and adult cheetahs". Proceedings of FONETIK 2013: 25–28.  Template:Open access
  76. Eklund, R.. "Robert Eklund's Ingressive Phonation & Speech Page". Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  77. Eklund, R.. "Robert Eklund's Wildlife Experience Page". Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  78. Eklund, R.. "Devoted to felid purring". Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  79. Eklund, R.; Peters, G.; Weise, F.; Munro, S. (2012). "An acoustic analysis of agonistic sounds in wild cheetahs". Proceedings of FONETIK 2012: 37–40.  Template:Open access
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 Volodina, E. V. (2000). "Vocal repertoire of the cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Carnivora, Felidae) in captivity: sound structure and their potential for estimating the state of adult animals". Zoologicheskiĭ Zhurnal 79 (7): 833–843.  Template:Open access
  81. Wielebnowski, N. C.; Ziegler, K.; Wildt, D. E.; Lukas, J.; Brown, J. L. (2002). "Impact of social management on reproductive, adrenal and behavioural activity in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)". Animal Conservation 5 (4): 291–301. doi:10.1017/S1367943002004043. 
  82. Hayward, M. W.; Hofmeyr, M.; O'Brien, J.; Kerley, G. I . H. (2006). "Prey preferences of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (Felidae: Carnivora): morphological limitations or the need to capture rapidly consumable prey before kleptoparasites arrive?". Journal of Zoology 270 (4): 615–627. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00184.x. 
  83. Schaller, G. B. (1968). "Hunting behaviour of the cheetah in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania". African Journal of Ecology 6 (1): 95–100. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1968.tb00906.x. 
  84. Farhadinia, M.S.; Hosseini-Zavarei, F.; Nezami, B.; Harati, H.; Absalan, H.; Fabiano, E.; Marker, L. (2012). "Feeding ecology of the Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus in low prey habitats in northeastern Iran: Implications for effective conservation". Journal of Arid Environments 87: 206–211. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2012.05.002.  Template:Open access
  85. Eaton, R.L. (1970). "Hunting behavior of the cheetah". The Journal of Wildlife Management 34 (1): 56–67. doi:10.2307/3799492. JSTOR 3799492. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 86.2 86.3 O'Brien, S.J.; M.B.D., Wildt (1986). "The cheetah in genetic peril". Scientific American 254: 68–76. 
  87. Lee, J.J. (2013). "Long-held myth about cheetahs busted". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  88. Phillips, J.A. (1993). "Bone consumption by cheetahs at undisturbed kills: evidence for a lack of focal-palatine erosion". Journal of Mammalogy 74 (2): 487–92. doi:10.2307/1382408. JSTOR 1382408. 
  89. Caro, T.M. (1987). "Cheetah mothers' vigilance: looking out for prey or for predators?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 20 (5): 351–361. doi:10.1007/BF00300681. JSTOR 4600031.  Template:Open access
  90. Houston, D.C. (1974). "Food searching in griffon vultures". African Journal of Ecology 12 (1): 63–77. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1974.tb00107.x. 
  91. Qumsiyeh, M. B. (1996). "Genus Acinonyx Cheetah". Mammals of the Holy Land. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. pp. 157–159. ISBN 978-0896723641. 
  92. Masseti, M. (2009). Carnivores of Syria In: E. Neubert, Z. Amr, S. Taiti, B. Gümüs (eds.) Animal Biodiversity in the Middle East. Proceedings of the First Middle Eastern Biodiversity Congress, Aqaba, Jordan, 20–23 October 2008. ZooKeys 31: 229–252.
  93. "Agility, not speed, puts cheetahs ahead". Science 340 (6138): 1271. 2013. doi:10.1126/science.340.6138.1271-b. 
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 Wilson, J.W.; Mills, M.G.L.; Wilson, R.P.; Peters, G.; Mills, M.E.J.; Speakman, J.R.; Durant, S.M.; Bennett, N.C. et al. (2013). "Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey". Biology Letters 9 (5): 20130620. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0620. PMC 3971710. PMID 24004493.  Template:Open access
  95. Gonyea, W.J. (1978). "Functional implications of felid forelimb anatomy". Acta Anatomica 102 (2): 111–121. doi:10.1159/000145627. PMID 685643. 
  96. Hudson, P.E.; Corr, S.A.; Payne-Davis, R.C.; Clancy, S.N.; Lane, E.; Wilson, A.M. (2011). "Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb". Journal of Anatomy 218 (4): 363–374. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01310.x. PMC 3077520. PMID 21062282. // 
  97. Sears, E. S. (2001). Running through the Ages. North Carolina, USA: McFarland. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-0971-6. 
  98. Carwardine, M. (2008). Animal Records. New York, USA: Sterling. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4027-5623-8. 
  99. Smith, R. (2012). "Cheetah Breaks Speed Record–Beats Usain Bolt by Seconds". National Geographic Daily News (National Geographic Society). Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  100. "Speed Sensation". Nature Video Collections. BBC Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  101. Hildebrand, M. (1961). "Further studies on locomotion of the cheetah". Journal of Mammalogy 42 (1): 84–96. doi:10.2307/1377246. JSTOR 1377246. 
  102. Bertram, J.E.A.; Gutmann, A. (2009). "Motions of the running horse and cheetah revisited: fundamental mechanics of the transverse and rotary gallop". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 6 (35): 549–559. doi:10.1098/rsif.2008.0328. PMC 2696142. PMID 18854295.  Template:Open access
  103. Taylor, M.E. (1989). "Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution". Locomotor Adaptations by Carnivores. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 382–409. ISBN 978-1-4612-8204-4. 
  104. Mares, M.A. (1999). Encyclopedia of Deserts. Oklahoma, USA: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-8061-3146-7. 
  105. Taylor, C. R.; Rowntree, V. J. (1973). "Temperature regulation and heat balance in running cheetahs: a strategy for sprinters?". The American Journal of Physiology 224 (4): 848–851. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1973.224.4.848. ISSN 0002-9513. PMID 4698801. 
  106. Hetem, R. S.; Mitchell, D.; Witt, B. A. de; Fick, L. G.; Meyer, L. C. R.; Maloney, S. K.; Fuller, A. (2013). "Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat". Biology Letters 9 (5): 20130472. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0472. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3971684. PMID 23883578. 
  107. 107.0 107.1 Hildebrand, M. (1959). "Motions of cheetah and horse". Journal of Mammalogy 40 (4): 481–95. doi:10.2307/1376265. JSTOR 1376265. 
  108. Alexander, R.M. (1993). "Legs and locomotion of Carnivora". Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 65: 1–13. 
  109. Alan Wilson, Tatjana Hubel, Kyle Roskilly. "Dynamics and Energetics of Hunting in the Cheetah". Royal Veterinary College. 
  110. A. M. Wilson, J. C. Lowe, K. Roskilly, P. E. Hudson, K. A. Golabek, J. W. McNutt (12 June 2013). "Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs". Nature 498 (7453): 185–189. doi:10.1038/nature12295. PMID 23765495. 
  111. Carwardine, Mark (2008). Animal Records. New York: Sterling. p. 11. ISBN 9781402756238. 
  112. Burton, M.; Burton, R. (2002). International Wildlife Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). New York, USA: Marshall Cavendish. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7. 
  113. 113.0 113.1 Pappas, S. (2 August 2012). "Wow! 11-year-old cheetah Breaks Land Speed Record". LiveScience. Retrieved 24 March 2016. 
  114. Ghosh, P. (12 June 2013). "Cheetah tracking study reveals incredible acceleration". BBC. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  115. RVC Press Office (2013). "Groundbreaking RVC research shows wild cheetah reaching speeds of up to 58 mph during a hunt". Royal Veterinary College, University of London. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  116. Wilson, A.M.; Lowe, J.C.; Roskilly, K.; Hudson, P.E.; Golabek, K.A.; McNutt, J.W. (2013). "Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs". Nature 498 (7453): 185–189. doi:10.1038/nature12295. PMID 23765495. 
  117. Adams, S. (2 August 2012). "Move over Usain: Cincinnati cheetah hits 61mph to run 100 m in 5.95 seconds to smash record world's fastest land mammal". Daily Mail. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  118. 118.0 118.1 Laurenson, M. K.; Caro, T. M.; Borner, M. (1992). "Female cheetah reproduction". National Geographic Research and Exploration 8 (1002): 64–75.  Template:Open access
  119. Caro, T.M. (1993). "Behavioral solutions to breeding cheetahs in captivity: Insights from the wild". Zoo Biology 12 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430120105. 
  120. Tong, J. R. (1974). "Breeding cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, at the Beekse Bergen Safari Park". International Zoo Yearbook 14 (1): 129–130. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1974.tb00795.x. 
  121. Gottelli, D.; Wang, J.; Bashir, S.; Durant, S. M. (2007). "Genetic analysis reveals promiscuity among female cheetahs". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B: Biological Sciences 274 (1621): 1993–2001. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0502. PMC 2275179. PMID 17535795.  Template:Open access
  122. Eaton, R. L. (1976). "A possible case of mimicry in larger mammals". Evolution 30 (4): 853–6. doi:10.2307/2407827. JSTOR 2407827.  Template:Open access
  123. Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. (2013). "Generation length for mammals". Nature Conservation (5): 87–94. 
  124. Caro, T.M. (1995). "Short-term costs and correlates of play in cheetahs". Animal Behaviour 49 (2): 333–45. doi:10.1006/anbe.1995.9999.  Template:Open access
  125. Kelly, M.J.; Laurenson, M. K.; Fitz-Gibbon, C. D.; Collins, D. A.; S. M.; Frame, G. W.; Bertram, B.C.; Caro, T. M. (1998). "Demography of the Serengeti cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population: the first 25 years". Journal of Zoology 244 (4): 473–88. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1998.tb00053.x.  Template:Open access
  126. Laurenson, M.K. (1994). "High juvenile mortality in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and its consequences for maternal care". Journal of Zoology 234 (3): 387–408. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04855.x. 
  127. Laurenson, M.K. (1995). "Implications of high offspring mortality for cheetah population dynamics". Research, Conservation and Management of an Ecosystem (Chicago): 1–18.  Template:Open access
  128. Mills, M.G.L.; Mills, M.E.J. (2014). "Cheetah cub survival revisited: a re-evaluation of the role of predation, especially by lions, and implications for conservation". Journal of Zoology 292 (2): 136–41. doi:10.1111/jzo.12087.  Template:Open access
  129. Gugliotta, G. (2008). "Rare breed". Smithsonian Magazine: 1–4.  Template:Open access
  130. Marker, L. (1998). "Current status of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)". Proceedings of a Symposium on Cheetahs as Game Ranch Animals: Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa: 1–17.  Template:Open access
  131. Broomhall, L.S.; Mills, M.G.L.; du Toit, J.T. (2003). "Home range and habitat use by cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Kruger National Park". Journal of Zoology 261 (2): 119–28. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004059.  Template:Open access
  132. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  133. Mallon, D. P. (2007). "Cheetahs in Central Asia: A historical summary". Cat News (46): 4–7. 
  134. Farhadinia, M. S.; Hunter, L. T. B.; Jourabchian, A.; Hosseini-Zavarei, F.; Akbari, H.; Ziaie, H.; Schaller, G. B.; Jowkar, H. (2017). "The critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus in Iran: a review of recent distribution, and conservation status". Biodiversity and Conservation 26 (5): 1–20. doi:10.1007/s10531-017-1298-8. 
  135. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  136. Laurenson, M.K.; Caro, T.M. (1994). "Monitoring the effects of non-trivial handling in free-living cheetahs". Animal Behaviour 47 (3): 547–57. doi:10.1006/anbe.1994.1078. 
  137. Voigt, C.C.; Thalwitzer, S.; Melzheimer, J.; Blanc, A.; Jago, M.; Wachter, B.; Fenton, B. (2014). "The conflict between cheetahs and humans on Namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis". PLOS ONE 9 (8): e101917. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101917. PMC 4146470. PMID 25162403. //  Template:Open access
  138. Durant, S. M.; Mitchell, N.; Groom, R.; Pettorelli, N.; Ipavec, A.; Jacobson, A. P.; Woodroffe, R.; Böhm, M. et al. (2016). "The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (3): 528–533. doi:10.1073/pnas.1611122114. PMC 5255576. PMID 28028225. 
  139. McGrath, M. (2016-12-26). "Cheetahs heading towards extinction as population crashes". BBC News (The BBC). Retrieved December 27, 2016. 
  140. Buckley, R.C.; Morrison, C.; Castley, J.G.; Russo, D. (2016). "Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival". PLOS ONE 11 (2): e0147988. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147988. PMC 4757554. PMID 26886876. //  Template:Open access
  141. Groom, R. (27 September 2013). "Rangewide Conservation Program for Cheetah and Wild Dog". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  142. "Rangewide Conservation Program for Cheetah and African Wild Dogs". IUCN Cat Specialist Group, Wildlife Conservation Society, Zoological Society of London and The Howard G. Buffett Foundation. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  143. Durant, S. (2007). "Range-wide Conservation Planning for Cheetah and Wild Dog". Cat News 46: 13. 
  144. De Iongh, H.H.; Bauer, H.; Tumenta, P.; Schoe, M.; Sogbosossou, E.; Gueye, M.; Kirsten, I.; Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2014). "National lion action plans and strategies in Benin, Cameroon and Senegal". Cat News: 8–11.  Template:Open access
  145. National conservation action plan for cheetahs and African wild dog in Botswana. Department of National Parks, Botswana. 2009. pp. 1–39. 
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  147. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  148. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  149. Template:Cite report
  150. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  151. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  152. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  153. National conservation action plan for cheetah and African wild dog in Zambia. Zambia Wildlife Authority. 2009. pp. 1–39.  Template:Open access
  154. Template:Cite report
  155. "The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum". The Tribune (India). 26 July 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  156. Divyabhanusinh (1999). The End of a Trail: the Cheetah in India. Banyan Books, New Delhi. 
  157. Bagla, P. (28 January 2003). "CCMB's Iran hope for Asiatic cheetah". The Indian Express. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  158. Umanadh, J.B.S. (7 August 2011). "Iranian refusal an obstacle to clone cheetah". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2016. 
  159. Template:Cite report Template:Open access
  160. Hunter, L.. "Finding the Last Cheetahs of Iran". National Geographic. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  161. "Conservation of Asiatic Cheetah Project (CACP) – Phase II". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  162. Karimi, N. (26 June 2014). "Iran tries to save Asiatic cheetah from extinction". Associated Press. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 
  163. Allred, A.P. (2005). Cats' Most Wanted : The Top 10 Book of Mysterious Mousers, Talented Tabbies, and Feline Oddities (1st ed.). Washington, D.C. (USA): Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1574-888-584. 
  164. McCoy, G.L.; Le Guyader, H. (2006). [[[:Template:Google books]] The Tree of Life: A Phylogenetic Classification] (1st ed.). Massachusetts, USA: Belknap Press of Harvard University. ISBN 978-0674-021-839. Template:Google books. 
  165. Quammen, D. (1998). [[[:Template:Google books]] The Flight of the Iguana: A Sidelong View of Science and Nature] (1st ed.). London, UK: Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684-836-263. Template:Google books. 
  166. Allsen, T.T. (2006). [[[:Template:Google books]] The Royal Hunt in Eurasian history]. Philadelphia, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3926-3. Template:Google books. 
  167. Kitchell Jr., K.F. (2010). [[[:Template:Google books]] Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z]. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 28–9. ISBN 978-0415-392-433. Template:Google books. 
  168. Eastmond, Antony (2012). "Byzantine Oliphants?". Philopation 70: 97–99. 
  169. Negi, S.S. (1994). [[[:Template:Google books]] Indian Forestry through the Ages]. New Delhi, India: Indus Publishing Company. ISBN 978-8173-870-200. Template:Google books. 
  170. Rangarajan, M., ed. (2000). The Oxford Anthology of Indian Wildlife: Hunting and shooting. 1 (2nd ed.). New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0195-645-927. 
  171. Laurenson, M.K.; Wielebnowski, N.; Caro, T.M. (1995). "Extrinsic factors and juvenile mortality in cheetahs". Conservation Biology 9 (5): 1329–31. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9051327.x-i1. JSTOR 2387078. 
  172. Munson, L.; Terio, K.A.; Worley, M.; Jago, M.; Bagot-Smith, A.; Marker, L. (2005). "Extrinsic factors significantly affect patterns of free ranging cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) populations". Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41 (3): 542–8. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-41.3.542. PMID 16244064. 
  173. Munson, L. (1993). "Diseases of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus): results of the cheetah research council pathology survey, 1989–1992". Zoo Biology 12 (1): 105–24. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430120110. 
  174. Gosselin, S.J.; Loudy, D.L.; Tarr, M.J.; Balistreri, W F.; Setchell, K.D.R.; Johnston, J.O.; Kramer, L.W.; Dresser, B.L. (1988). "Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in captive cheetah". Veterinary Pathology 25 (1): 48–57. doi:10.1177/030098588802500107. PMID 3344570.  Template:Open access
  175. Marker, L.; O'Brien, S.J. (1989). "Captive breeding of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in North American zoos (1871–1986)". Zoo Biology 8 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430080103.  Template:Open access
  176. Marker-Kraus, L.; Grisham, J. (1993). "Captive breeding of cheetahs in North American Zoos: 1987–1991". Zoo Biology 12 (1): 5–18. doi:10.1002/zoo.1430120104. 
  177. Donoghue, A.M.; Howard, J.G; Byers, A.P.; Goodrowe, K.L.; Bush, M.; Bloomer, E.; Lukas, J.; Stover, J. et al. (1992). "Correlation of sperm viability with gamete interaction and fertilization in vitro in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)". Biology of Reproduction 46 (6): 1047–56. doi:10.1095/biolreprod46.6.1047. Archived from the original on 2015-11-23.  Template:Open access
  178. Wildt, D.E.; Phillips, L.G.; Simmons, L.G.; Chakraborty, P.K.; Brown, J.L.; Howard, J.G.; Teare, A.; Bush, M. (1988). "A comparative analysis of ejaculate and hormonal characteristics of the captive male cheetah, tiger, leopard, and puma". Biology of Reproduction 38 (2): 245–55. doi:10.1095/biolreprod38.2.245.  Template:Open access
  179. Tresidder, W. (1981). "The cheetahs in Titian's Bacchus and Ariadne". The Burlington Magazine 123 (941): 481–3. JSTOR 880424. 
  180. Fisher, M.H. (2004). [[[:Template:Google Books]] Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in Britain 1600–1857]. New Delhi, India: Permanent Black. ISBN 978-8178-240-770. Template:Google Books. 
  181. Chattopadhyay, P. (12 March 2016). "The Empire Strikes Back". The Indian Express. Retrieved 26 March 2016. 
  182. Edmunds, L. (2006). [[[:Template:Google Books]] Oedipus]. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-1134-331-284. Template:Google Books. 
  183. The Cobra And The Cheetah: A Muscle Car Tale (Part Two), Ronnie Schreiber, September 8, 2010
  184. Duncan, J. (2002). [[[:Template:Google Books]] Ahead of their Time: A Biographical Dictionary of Risk-taking Women]. Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-316-609. Template:Google Books. 
  185. Towheed, S. (2007). [[[:Template:Google Books]] New Readings in the Literature of British India, c. 1780–1947]. Stuttgart, Germany: Ibidem-Verlag. ISBN 978-3898-216-739. Template:Google Books. 
  186. [[[:Template:Google Books]] "How it was with Dooms – a true story from Africa"]. New York 30 (10): 119. 17 March 1997. Template:Google Books. 
  187. Ebert, R. (2007). Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2007. Missouri, USA: Andrews McMeel Pub.. pp. 195–6. ISBN 978-0740-761-577. 
  188. Laskow, S. (20 August 2015). "The original Cheetos Mouse never had a chance once Chester Cheetah came along". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  189. Johnson, J.K. (2009). American Advertising in Poland: A Study of Cultural Interactions since 1990. North Carolina, USA: McFarland & Company. pp. 127–9. ISBN 978-0-7864-3797-9. 
  190. Moreau, S. (23 March 2016). "The Evolution of Mac OS X". Computerworld. Retrieved 25 March 2016. 
  191. Wallace, D. (2008). The DC Comics Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to the Characters of the DC Universe (Updated and expanded ed.). New York, USA: Dorling Kindersley. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7566-4119-1. 

Further reading Edit

External links Edit

Template:Wikispecies Template:Commonscat Template:Wikinews


Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.