|CITV (Children's ITV)|
(block) (as Children's ITV)
11 2006 (channel)
ITV Digital Channels Ltd|
|Picture format||576i (16:9,|
|Audience share||0.20% (CITV channel) (2017BARB),|
|Slogan||Do You Wanna Play?|
ITV Box Office
|ITV Breakfast Block||
|Sky (UK only)||Channel 621|
|Astra 2E||10758 V 22000 5/6|
|Virgin Media (UK)||Channel 734|
CITV (short for Children's ITV) is a British free-to-air children's television channel from ITV Digital Channels Ltd, a division of ITV plc. It broadcasts content from the CITV archive and acquisitions, every day from 6 am to 9 pm which was previously 6 am to 6 pm until 21 February 2016 (although Freeview viewers still close at 6 pm) in an attempt to compete with CBBC. It is also the title of a programming block on the ITV network at weekends.
Children's ITV launched on 3 January 1983, as a late afternoon programming block on the ITV network.[notes 1] It replaced the earlier Watch It! branding and introduced networked in-vision continuity links between programmes. These links were originally pre-recorded from a small London studio, up until 1987 when Central won the contract to produce live links from their Birmingham studios. In 2004, presentation of CITV was relocated to Granada Television in Manchester, which saw the demise of in-vision continuity. Nine years later, operations moved to ITV Granada's MediaCityUK studios in Salford.
In 2006, CITV launched as a channel in its own right. The CITV channel averages around 100,000 viewers between 4pm-6pm every day. The CITV strand on the ITV network airs on weekend mornings from 6 am to 9:25 am, as part of the ITV Breakfast time slot.
Watch It! and Children's ITV: Early years (1980–1989) Edit
Before being known as Children's ITV, the timeslot for children's programmes on the ITV Network was briefly branded as Watch It!. The Watch It! brand started on 29 December 1980 and was presented live by the duty continuity announcer in each ITV region.
The notion of networking children's continuity was first suggested within ITV as far back as the early 1970s, but with fierce regional identities prevalent - including scheduling, presentation and programming - the idea stalled until the late 1970s, when the IBA began to express concern that most ITV shows for children were not consistent or fully networked. On many occasions, the ITV regions were able to broadcast whatever programmes they wished; many non-children's programmes appeared, such as Little House on the Prairie . In December 1980, ITV announced its first concerted effort at a more coherent approach to children's output, with the introduction of Watch It! each weekday from 4.15 pm to 5.15 pm, after the IBA continued to emphasized issues.
Watch It! was conceived by the promotions department at ATV, with the implementation of the branding differed from region to region, thus it was always transmitted locally and never provided on a network basis. ATV provide different animations each season, to freshen up what was available to each company. Most regions, including Southern/TVS and Granada, would use their own station announcers during Watch It! airtime.
Shortly after the start of new franchises in 1982, some ITV stations raised concerns that Watch It! had not gone far enough to address previous concerns. Central's Controller of Children's Programmes, Lewis Rudd, suggested a different approach to the presentation method. As a result, the Central promotions department came up with the initial concept for Children's ITV. The new look was devised, and links between programmes were pre-recorded using presenters drawn from the constituent programmes. The networking arrangements were similar to those already in place for the transmission of schools programmes - the links were played out from Central and the component programmes came from the supplying companies.
Children's ITV went to air on Monday 3 January 1983, between 4 pm and 5.15 pm each weekday afternoon, the extra fifteen minutes being filled by a repeat of one of the pre-school programmes shown at lunchtime the same day. Initially featuring a different presenter each month (usually from children's television), the links were pre-recorded in advance in a small studio at a London facility called Molinare, using a single locked-off camera. The first set design was a rocket ship and was used for the first few months. The concept was eventually retired, and the set and style of presentation used began to reflect the artist presenting that month or the programme that he/she fronted. By 1984, the links were still being recorded, but using a common, stylized set known as Network Control. The exterior of this fictitious location also featured in the animations and stings. Technical considerations often left the system flawed. With each programme coming from a different playout source (usually from that of the originating ITV company), and each link being pre-recorded (played out by Central), things often went wrong on air: programmes would be rolled early and the links would be cut short. Programmes would also fail to appear and the presenter would be left on screen. Because each link was recorded for the slot available, the presenter would hold the final pose for a few moments so that the transmission controller at Central had something to leave on screen just in case. Pre-recording the links also meant that late schedule changes could not be easily referenced.
In September 1985, the BBC revamped their own children's presentation with the introduction of "Children's BBC". Using the BBC1 announcer booth at BBC Television Centre, later dubbed "The Broom Cupboard", Phillip Schofield provided links between the programmes. This format of a small self-op continuity studio using one single presenter (and an occasional puppet) continued in largely the same format until 1993, but was broadcast live and allowed for a looser, more relaxed style of presentation than the rival ITV service.
Children's ITV went live two years later. Using the small presentation studio at their Broad Street studios - which had become available since in-vision continuity for the Central region was dropped - former Central announcer Gary Terzza and Debbie Shore presented live links from a large set built to look like a transmitting station. Although the studio space was small, the designers' use of a plate glass mirror gave the effect of a much larger set. The new live format gave brought a great deal of flexibility; timings could be altered, schedule changes reflected and breakdowns dealt with in a continuous manner. In 1988, the format was refreshed again with a new single presenter, Mark Granger, replacing Terzza and Shore, in a smaller, more basic studio set which included in-vision monitors showing the VT clock of the next scheduled item.
The Stonewall Productions era (1989–1991) Edit
From 3 April 1989, the independent production company Stonewall Productions won the contract to produce Children's ITV presentation. Stonewall Productions was headed up by Michael Jackson, a Central staffer who used his expertise to prepare a suitable application.
Whereas Central had restricted links to the station's former in-vision presentation studio, Stonewall chose not to use a fixed set, but instead presented links from various areas of Central's headquarters at Broad Street in Birmingham, utilising a rotating team of presenters which included Clive Warren (now a DJ), Jeanne Downs (a singer), Jerry Foulkes (a producer who left Children's ITV on 22 December 1989) and a large puppet dog called Scally.
Central regains control (1991–2000) Edit
Central won back the contract to produce the continuity links from 1 April 1991, choosing to revert links back to a small in-vision studio and using one regular presenter, Tommy Boyd. During the 1991–93 era, greater importance was being placed throughout television on promotions (trailers) as a way of effectively detailing areas of the schedule to viewers who might not know about them. The 1993 invitation to tender for the provision of the Children's ITV service specified a minimum number of high quality trailers that the successful applicant must produce over the term of the contract. With a large promotions department - and a strong, highly credible reputation for presentation within the ITV network - the contract remained with Central.
In February 1993, in-vision presentation was dropped by the first Network Centre controller of children's & daytime programming Dawn Airey (a former Central management trainee) with Steven Ryde providing live out-of-vision continuity links featuring a wide variety of animated characters. On 6 September 1993, CITV was extended to start at 3.30 pm, when ITV network centre decided to move the pre-school children slot from 12.10 pm, to be branded under the CITV in the afternoon slot. Around the same time, the Children's ITV name was changed to CITV, having been used in some form or another since the previous year. However, the Children's was not removed from the logo until Monday 2 September 1996, the same month a digital on-screen graphic (DOG) was introduced.
Presentation for the service was moved in 1997 when Central moved into new, smaller studios at Gas Street Studios in Birmingham, which continued until Monday 25 May 1998, when a new in-vision service was introduced by the new controller of ITV children's output, Nigel Pickard. Steven Ryde became a producer with Stephen Mulhern and Danielle Nicholls becoming the new presentation team. A new logo was introduced (with traces predecessors), and henceforth the service was referred to as CiTV, until the 2006 re-brand, initially being broadcast from Studio B at Central's Gas Street Studios.
Central retained the contact to produce CITV for a further two years, seeing off two rival bids from other ITV companies. Shortly after launch, CITV started sharing studio space with the West Midlands edition of Central News in September 1999, allowing room for a large stylised set created by a company called Dorans Propmakers. The main studio for Central News West had previously been used for live music performances during CITV.
Cutbacks (2001–2008) Edit
During 2001, CITV's budget was cut by 17% due to the advertising recession, leading to CITV's controller Janie Grace publicly criticising Carlton and Granada Television, then the main controlling forces in the network, for underinvestment in ITV's children's service. Grace went even further and complained to the regulator ITC, claiming CITV was unlikely to fulfil its range of programming commitments in the following year. Grace also sought support from the ITC for the creation of a separate CITV Ltd company which would allow more children's output to be made in-house - a proposal which ultimately fell apart due to the need for a change in the law and support from the Office of Fair Trading. Further cuts took place again during 2002 which brought the total cutback to 25% of the overall budget (£30million less).
Despite the cutbacks, the ITC noted that CITV had a "sustained an impressive schedule", gave "factual material a fresh look" and "continued to produce good dramas" Just after CITV celebrated its 20th birthday in January 2003, Janie Grace resigned from the post, just before Nigel Pickard was named as ITV's new Director of Programmes. Pickard pledged to produce 80 more hours of children's programming in 2003, against a target of 520 hours in 2002 and extend the range of programmes to include more factual and topical programmes and more mixed entertainment and drama, Once again, concerns about CITV and its structure where highlighted by Angus Fletcher, president of Jim Henson Television Europe, and Anne Wood, founder of Ragdoll Productions, as it could only earn money from a then unreliable advertising market, unlike BBC Worldwide where the likes of Teletubbies, Tweenies and Bob the Builder became key money earners for the Corporation.
Steven Andrew took over as ITV's controller of children and youth, overseeing the merger of Carlton and Granada's children's departments. Andrew also began looking at the possibility of launching a CITV channel, which had previously been put on hold by budget cuts. On-screen, various changes to the continuity presenting team saw no less than eight additions and replacements in the space of four years. By September 2004, ITV plc announced the closure of its presentation and transmission facilities in Birmingham, signalling the end of CITV continuity from Central. Presentation was relocated to Granada in Manchester and all in-vision continuity was replaced by voice overs.
Further cuts back took place in 2005 added with the perceived rising costs of original production and the effects on advertising revenues following the ban by Ofcom on 'junk food' advertising within children's schedules from 2007 and increasing competition from CBBC and countless digital children's channels for new programmes (especially imported cartoons, typically from America). In the summer of 2006, ITV closed down its in-house children's production unit, as part of ITV's then on-going process of restructuring ITV Productions, and blaming the closure because of the competitive production environment, though ITV denied any intention of ditching its children's programming from its network schedule. At the end of 2006, CITV's weekday afternoon strand on the main ITV network was cut off and CITV got a TV channel.
Increase in budget (2009–present) Edit
In July 2009, ITV announced it was the only channel to have an increased budget. Emma Tennant, the then controller of CITV, told the Showcomotion conference "The commissioning budgets for all channels next year are going to be smaller, except CITV, which is growing – but it will not necessarily spend the additional money on original commissions". It was also made clear due to tight budgets it may just lead to more acquisitions rather than new programmes being commissioned.
CITV Channel Edit
The CITV channel was due to start in 2001 but was axed when CITV lost 25% of its budget. When Steven Andrew become controller of children and youth at ITV, he stated "No kids strategy is complete without us being able to play in the cable and satellite world. In fact, we can't not do this and ultimately survive as a kids player in the future". In early 2004, ITV finally confirmed it was planning to launch a children's channel, but as a joint venture. Charles Allen, chief executive of ITV, did not believe in ITV creating a new channel as it was already an over-populated market, with talk being held with Nickelodeon and Disney. The plans were dropped 12 months later with ITV instead using its own branding, and using spare Daytime capacity on new ITV4, channel being launch in the autumn of 2005. The original new channel, with Nickelodeon dubbed "INK" (ITV Nickelodeon Kids) - would have seen the two companies share programmes across each other's networks. Unfortunately each side failed to agree on the exact structure of the new venture and how it would be branded. ITV said We just got to the point of thinking that it was more sustainable for us to do it ourselves. The deal fizzled out over a period of time. Nickelodeon described the decision to end the talks as a "mutual backing away".
The original launch date of the channel was set for November 2005, to co-side with the launch of ITV4 but was healed back till 11 February 2006. As a result of problems "clearing the digital rights to children's programming" and "comprehensive" re-branding, it was again pushed back by another four weeks. Promos for the channel began on 20 February, including an online countdown clock, running to the channel's launch date. As has become standard for Freeview channel launches, the channel was allocated an EPG number well before transmission started. Initially, a static 'coming soon' graphic was shown, followed by a preview video loop running from late February 2006 until the launch. The channel launched on 11 March 2006 at 9.25 am, replacing the ITV News Channel on Freeview, Homechoice (now known as TalkTalk TV) and Telewest. It also launched on Sky on 8 May 2006 and NTL on 6 June. Additionally, the channel simulcasts CITV Breakfast (previously known as GMTV2, which was originally broadcast on ITV2, then ITV4) on weekdays between 6 am and 9.25 am.
The channel broadcasts daily from 6 am to 6 pm and previously time-shared with ITV4 until 5 February 2008 when ITV4 expanded its broadcast hours to become a full 24-hour channel. As a consequence, it moved to the multiplex space on Freeview originally held by ABC1 from English and Scottish transmitters and S4C from Welsh transmitters, this meant that viewers of the latter were unable to receive the channel on Freeview unless they could receive transmissions from England. On 2 November 2009, the channel was relaunched, with a new logo and new branding to match ITV1 as part of ITV plc's corporate look. The channel's pre-school strand was given a dramatic overhaul, and renamed Mini CITV. Mini CITV is hosted by a group of spacemen-like beings called the Minis, who oversee presentation items on the channel. With the exception of weekends and holidays, Mini CITV took up the majority of output on the channel for a few years, though this was scaled back in 2012. On 9 January 2012, a change in the forward error correction mode on the multiplex allowed CITV to broadcast in Wales on Freeview. On 21 December 2012, the channel aired its first live programme since 2006, a 45-minute CITV special of Text Santa, ITV's Christmas charity appeal. A year later a series of 10-minute programmes titled Help for Hattitude in aid of the above-mentioned appeal was produced for the channel - both programmes were produced in-house by ITV Studios. A new look was introduced on 14 January 2013 to coincide with ITV's corporate rebranding. The channel adopted a "yellowy-orange" logo with playful idents that "burp and fart, and do other things kids love". On the weekend of Saturday 5 and Sunday 6 January 2013, CITV celebrated its thirty years of service with a marathon of archive programming, officially known as the Old Skool Weekend.
On 22 February 2016, CITV extended its on-air hours, the channel now finishes at 21:00 rather than the earlier 18:00.
- Main article: List of programmes broadcast by CITV
Programming between 6:00 and 9:25 am is controlled by ITV Breakfast (previously GMTV), who, having rebranded the vast majority of their GMTV children's output as CITV, now use the space to simulcast their programming at weekends on the ITV network and CITV Breakfast on weekdays. ITV takes over at 9.25 am, controlling the rest of the day's programming. When it first launched, GMTV used to sell all the airtime for the channel, making it the first ITV plc-owned channel not to be sold by the in-house sales team. Airtime sales have now been taken back in-house by ITV.
Some of the channel's most notable programming has been specially commissioned by CITV, such as Horrid Henry, Mr. Bean: The Animated Series, Thunderbirds Are Go!, and Sooty. A vast of other programmes are sourced from the likes of Disney, Nickelodeon, and Cartoon Network.
Mini CITV Edit
Mini CITV, which launched on 2 November 2009, was the slot that housed CITV's pre-school programming. Between 2009 and 2012, Mini CITV used to be shown weekdays in the school term between 8:45 am to 3 pm, and on weekends and school holidays between 6 am to 7:25 am. ITV used to broadcast Mini CITV on weekend mornings, there also used to be a block called The Fluffy Club between 2008 and 2010 on weekend mornings that housed pre school programmes and used to feature a baby chick in between programmes. A series of little animated spacemen characters called the Minis were the mascots of the strand (similar to the yellow bugs of its rival CBeebies). As of 7 January 2013, the Mini CITV name and the Mini mascots are no longer used on-screen and two years later, (7 January 2015) CITV withdrew all of its pre-school programming from both its weekday and weekend schedules with the exception of Sooty programme.
Programmes that were shown on Mini CITV:
Share a Story is a competition run annually by CITV, around the Easter holidays. Children aged 5–12 are asked to write a one-page story and also draw an accompanying storyboard. Entries are judged by professional animators and children who have won the competition in the past. Winning stories are turned into short animations which are then broadcast on CITV in October. A documentary following the progress of the winning children is usually screened at Christmas time. The competition launched in 2010, and has been nominated for six Children's BAFTA Awards, winning three times (2012, 2013, and 2014).
Presenters and announcers on CITV over the years have included:
In-vision presenters Edit
Out-of-vision announcers Edit
Monthly presenters Edit
Relief presenters Edit
The CITV channel launched with a full-day average of 33,000 viewers and a 2.5% share of the child audience. This put it ahead of its major commercial rivals Cartoon Network (20,000, a 1.5% share), Boomerang (28,000 a 2.1% share) and Nickelodeon (26,000 a 2.0% share). The channel peaked at 4.30 pm with Bratz gaining 51,000 viewers and a 3.6% share.
The channel took a 0.2% audience share in its first week compared to: CBBC 0.6%, Cartoon Network 0.4%, Boomerang 0.4% and CBeebies 1.4%. Its overall ratings share for March 2006 was 0.1%; by April 2006 this had risen to 0.2%, 0.3% followed in May. In August 2006, the channel became the most popular commercial kids channel between 6 am and 6 pm. On 6 January 2013, the CITV Channel received its highest viewing figures to date: Danger Mouse, which was shown as part of the Old Skool Weekend to celebrate CITV's 30th anniversary, which attracted 578,000 viewers.
Most watched programmes Edit
|Rank||Programme||Number of Viewers||Date|
|1||Dangermouse||578,000||6 January 2013|
|5||Sooty & Co||460,000|
|7||Rosie & Jim||455,000|
|8||Fun House||455,000||5 January 2013|
|9||Rainbow||434,000||6 January 2013|
|10||The Sooty Show||426,000||5 January 2013|
- ↑ At this point, there was only one "ITV" channel in any given area- transmitter overlap and split weekday/weekend franchises aside- and "ITV" was solely a generic/collective name for the various regional commercial television stations.
- ↑ "CITV extend their broadcast hours to 9 pm ahead of CBBC doing the same after BBC3 closure. • /r/BritishTV". https://www.reddit.com/r/BritishTV/comments/47c7zf/citv_extend_their_broadcast_hours_to_9pm_ahead_of/. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- ↑ "ITV Interim Results - 6 months to 2005-06-30" (PDF). Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20061016083717/http://www.investis.com/itv/downloads/interim2005.pdf. Retrieved 14 January 2007.
- ↑ Television and Radio, The Times: Monday 29 December 1980
- ↑ ITV denies profligacy in programme deals. By Kenneth Gosling. The Times, Thursday, 11 December 1980; pg. 4;
- ↑ Donald Duck faces the cold shoulder from TV. By Kenneth Gosling. The Times Thursday, 21 January 1982; pg. 12
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 "WATCHED IT! - Children's ITV Presentation". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 8 April 2001. https://web.archive.org/web/20010408191056/http://freespace.virgin.net/greg.taylor1/watched_it/citv.html. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "CITV set for classic kids TV weekend". BBC News. 19 December 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-20780372. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "An Unofficial History of Children's BBC Presentation". Broom Cupboard. http://www.thebroomcupboard.co.uk/page2.html. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "Carlton regains CITV job". Broadcast. 18 June 1999. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/news/multi-platform/news/carlton-regains-citv-job/1215790.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Brown, Maggie (1 November 2001). "ITV kids' shows at risk". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2001/nov/01/broadcasting4. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Brown, Maggie (12 November 2001). "Suffer the children". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2001/nov/12/mondaymediasection. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Deans, Jason (20 November 2001). "BBC chief calls for strong CITV". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2001/nov/20/ITV.bbc. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "ITC Note: Children’s Television". Ofcom. http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/itc_publications/itc_notes/view_note73.html. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 "Children's TV: CITV - Winning custody of the children". Broadcast. 3 February 2003. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/childrens-tv-citv-winning-custody-of-the-children/1109395.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "Granada Kids boss replaces Grace". C21Media. 27 February 2003. http://www.c21media.net/archives/12597. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "ITV puts colour back into kids". Broadcast. 29 January 2003. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/itv-puts-colour-back-into-kids/1108923.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "Tough times for kids TV". Broadcast. 24 February 2005. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/tough-times-for-kids-tv/1020266.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Sweney, Mark (17 November 2006). "Total ban for junk food ads around kids' shows". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2006/nov/17/health.food. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Harvey, Jessica (22 February 2007). "Ofcom to begin phasing out fast-food ads during kids programmes". Caterer and Hotelkeeper. http://www.caterersearch.com/Articles/23/02/2007/311842/Ofcom-to-begin-phasing-out-fast-food-ads-during-kids.htm. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Holmwood, Leigh (20 June 2006). "ITV to end kids' TV production". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2006/jun/20/broadcasting.ITV1. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/citv-bucks-trend-to-grow-budget/5003131.article CITV bucks trend to grow budget 2 July 2009 | By Katherine Rushton
- ↑ "Autumn launch for CiTV channel". Broadcast. 12 December 2003. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/autumn-launch-for-citv-channel/1131522.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "New kids' channel planned by ITV". Media Week. 10 February 2004. http://www.mediaweek.co.uk/news/514495/. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "ITV kids channel set for autumn". Broadcast. 14 July 2005. http://www.broadcastnow.co.uk/itv-kids-channel-set-for-autumn/1027071.article. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ "New kids plan for ITV?". ToyNews. 29 July 2005. http://www.toynews-online.biz/news/394/New-kids-plan-for-ITV. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ↑ Brown, Maggie (13 February 2006). "Kidding Around Gets Serious". The Guardian (London). http://media.guardian.co.uk/mediaguardian/story/0,7558,1708203,00.html. Retrieved 13 February 2006.
- ↑ "CITV Channel to Launch". Archived from the original on 1 March 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060301023815/http://media247.co.uk/skydigital/newsarchive/2006/02/citv_to_launch.php. Retrieved 28 February 2006.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 NTL and Telewest are now both known as Virgin Media.
- ↑ Laughlin, Andrew (16 November 2012). "ITV1 to become 'ITV' in major corporate rebrand". Digital Spy. http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/media/news/a438502/itv1-to-become-itv-in-major-corporate-rebrand.html. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- ↑ "GMTV's Overall Strategy and Major Themes of the Year". Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060923124406/http://www.gm.tv/index.cfm?articleid=18900. Retrieved 30 January 2006.
- ↑ CITV: Where ITV viewers of the future start their journey Template loop detected: Template:Fix/category[dead link]
- ↑ http://www.bafta.org/search.html?q=share%20a%20story&w=true
- ↑ Timms, Dominic (13 March 2006). "ITV Ratings at Six-Month Low". The Guardian (London). http://media.guardian.co.uk/overnights/story/0,,1729992,00.html. Retrieved 13 March 2006.
- ↑ "CITV Channel Celebrates First Birthday". http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/broadcasting/a43891/citv-channel-celebrates-first-birthday.html. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- ↑ "Weekly Top 10 Programmes". Barb.co.uk. 18 October 2017. http://www.barb.co.uk/viewing-data/weekly-top-10/.
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