For the player character in Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, see Venom Snake.
Big Boss
Metal Gear
Snake (from Peace Walker)
Big Boss, as portrayed in a promotional CGI render for Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker.
First appearance Metal Gear (1987)
Last appearance Super Bomberman R (2017)
Created by Hideo Kojima
Voiced by English
David Hayter (Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Super Bomberman R)
Richard Doyle (Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots)
Kiefer Sutherland (Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes and Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain)
Akio Ōtsuka (Metal Gear Solid 3, Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, Metal Gear Solid V and Super Bomberman R)
Chikao Ōtsuka (Metal Gear Solid 4)
Aliases Naked Snake
Vic Boss
"The Man Who Sold The World"
Affiliation Outer Heaven / Zanzibar Land (Metal Gear and Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake)
Green Berets (pre-Metal Gear Solid 3)
FOX and CIA (Metal Gear Solid 3)
FOXHOUND (Metal Gear and Portable Ops)
Cipher (post-Portable Ops / pre-Peace Walker)
MSF (Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes)
Nationality American
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Big Boss is a video game character and one of the primary protagonists of the Metal Gear series created by Hideo Kojima and developed and published by Konami. Introduced in the early entries of the series as the commanding officer and subsequent nemesis of his son Solid Snake, he is later featured in the prequel games as a younger version of the character named Naked Snake (later shortened to simply Snake), an American Special Forces Operator and decorated war hero until political manipulations cause him to be disillusioned and start his own private mercenary company.


Metal Gear series
fictional chronology

In the MSX2 gamesEdit

Big Boss (ビッグ・ボス Biggu Bosu?) is introduced in the original Metal Gear game as the Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND's leader and Solid Snake's commanding officer. He initially acts as a radio contact who provides Snake with information about mission objectives, as well as weapons and equipment.[1][2] But after Snake destroys the titular TX-55 Metal Gear weapon despite Big Boss's discouragement, Outer Heaven's militia leader confronts Snake near the base's escape route in a final battle only to be defeated.[lower-alpha 1][3]

Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake reveals that Big Boss has since taken control of a fortified nation in Central Asia known as Zanzibar Land and commissions the development of Metal Gear D.[4] Solid Snake confronts Big Boss once again while escaping from Zanzibar Land's detention camp, with Snake incinerating Big Boss.[5]

In the Metal Gear Solid seriesEdit

Big Boss's presence figures prominently in the original Metal Gear Solid games where his DNA was used to create the genetically-altered clones as part of the secret "Les Enfants Terribles" government project (French for "The Terrible Children"): Solid Snake, Liquid Snake,[6] and Solidus Snake.[7]

The prequel Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater depicts a young incarnation of the character, under the codename Naked Snake (ネイキッド・スネーク Neikiddo Sunēku?),[8] as a member of the CIA special forces unit FOX in 1964 that was founded by Zero.[9] With Para-Medic and Sigint for additional support, he is sent on an assignment in the Soviet Union to thwart an uprising led by the sadistic Volgin, rescue key weapons researcher Nikolai Stepanovich Sokolov, destroy the Shagohod prototype, and kill his mentor, The Boss, who defected to the Soviet Union, to avert a nuclear war. Over the course of his assignment, he encounters Major Ocelot multiple times, fights and defeats the Cobra Unit (consisting of The Pain, The Fear, The End, The Fury and The Sorrow). After the mission is completed and Snake kills The Boss, he learns that the defection was part of a mission to be carried out, and the government ordered his mentor's death to prevent war.[10][11] According to EVA's debrief, the political motives behind the operation do not sit well with Snake, especially after he is awarded the Big Boss title for his actions;[12] he initially rejects the title, prompting him to retire from active service.

Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops shows Naked Snake still under his former codename, believing that he has yet to surpass The Boss as a warrior. Having spent six years wandering the globe, Snake finds himself involved in an armed uprising caused by Gene's rogue FOX unit in the (fictional) San Hieronymo peninsula in Colombia and learns that he has been convicted for instigating the revolt. Hoping to clear his name, Snake forms his own team of specialists by recruiting both old allies and defecting enemy soldiers to his cause, one of whom happens to be Roy Campbell. He faces not only the members of the FOX unit, but also Metal Gear's first prototype. After he learned that The Boss's death had been planned all along, Snake defeats Gene and obtains the funds for Army's Heaven.[13]

Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots revealed that Big Boss was one of the founding members of Zero's cause to initially realize The Boss's dream, but this spiraled into a conspiracy to impose order and control over the world after Big Boss disagreed with Zero's interpretation of the dream. Big Boss despised his role as figurehead, especially since Zero's vision placed no value on loyalty to ideals and people, something The Boss treasured above all else. When Big Boss learns that his own DNA was being used for Zero's "Les Enfants Terribles" project, this proved to be the final straw. After his defection from Zero's cause, Big Boss plotted coup d'état with Outer Heaven (Metal Gear) and Zanzibar Land (Metal Gear 2).[14] Although he had survived these defeats, he was placed in an artificially induced coma with his genetic code used for an ID recognition system, the use of which allows access to the AIs that make up the Patriots. His body is recovered and reconstructed using parts from the bodies of both Liquid and Solidus, and he awakens from his coma after the fall of the Patriots' AIs. Following the game's voice casting credits, Big Boss appears before Old Snake. After he reveals to Snake the truth about himself and Zero, Big Boss shuts down his catatonic nemesis' life support system. He manages to come to terms with his feelings regarding The Boss,[15] and then reconciles with his son before dying from unintended exposure to the new FOXDIE virus.

Naked Snake's past again serves as the scenario in Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker after he and his business partner Kazuhira "Kaz" Miller established the mercenary force Militaires Sans Frontières (French for "Soldiers Without Borders") made up of expatriate soldiers recruited to his cause. He intends to use MSF to live out The Boss's final will, a world where soldiers are free to choose their own fights on their own terms, and not at the whim of a government. On Colombia's Barranquilla coast, two representatives of the Costa Rican government (Paz Ortega Andrade and Ramon Gálvez Mena) seek to hire MSF to liberate Costa Rica from Coldman's CIA Peace Sentinel unit that has established bases in the country. Snake accepts the mission after Gálvez hands him an audio cassette with a recording of The Boss's voice. Following Kaz's advice, the MSF takes over an offshore research platform in the Caribbean as their base of operations in a bid to expand the group's capabilities. Over the course of the story, Snake comes to learn about the true purpose of Coldman's Peace Walker prototypes (Pupa, Chrysalis, Cocoon, and Peace Walker) and gradually lets go of his guilt for The Boss's death after encountering an AI replica, finally accepting his Big Boss title.[16] Later in the game, Big Boss has Huey Emmerich create Metal Gear ZEKE as a weapon to defend his interests, with no desire to use offensively. After Big Boss killed Gálvez out of self-defense, Paz pilots ZEKE to launch a nuclear strike on the Eastern Coast of the United States as part of an insurance policy if Big Boss refused to obey Cipher. After hearing the ultimatum, Big Boss refuses and fights ZEKE in order to stop Paz. He is victorious, but ZEKE is heavily damaged and Paz is ejected into the Caribbean Sea. After ZEKE's destruction, Kaz tells Big Boss of being aware of the plot from the beginning, and used it to spur the growth of MSF. Big Boss and Kaz realize they'll no longer be able to be away from the outside world unless they reveal their true nature. Big Boss rejects this idea, stating that his "life shall be different from The Boss's". After this conversation, Big Boss gives a speech to the MSF soldiers, telling them that if the times demand it, they will be vigilantes, criminals and terrorists, but they will be the ones to choose their battles and their causes, not governments.

Big Boss plays a central role in Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes and Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain. He is on a mission to rescue a child soldier and Pacifica Ocean from an American black site on Cuban soil; Big Boss believes that Pacifica can be converted to MSF's cause. Big Boss's rescue is successful and the medic found a bomb implanted inside Pacifica who is sacrificed to save everyone from another bomb which causes an explosive concussion wave which causes the helicopter to crash into the Caribbean Sea as MSF is destroyed by an invading paramilitary force led by Skull Face. Big Boss comes out of his coma and poses as "Ishmael", a patient in the hospital where Venom Snake is also being treated, and aids in an escape when the hospital is attacked by Skull Face's forces. While Snake ventures into Soviet-controlled Afghanistan using the new mercenary force Diamond Dogs made from MSF's remaining forces, Big Boss stays behind the scenes to develop a true Outer Heaven.[17]

Other appearancesEdit

In Snake's Revenge, a non-canonical sequel to the original Metal Gear for the NES released during the same year as Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, Big Boss returns as the leader of the enemy organization, having survived the injuries he sustained in the original game as a cyborg. He fights Solid Snake as a boss prior to reaching the new Metal Gear prototype and has two forms: his human form and a fire-breathing cyborg form. Naked Snake also appears as a playable character in Super Bomberman R.

Creation and designEdit

Physical appearanceEdit

In Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, Big Boss's visual appearance was inspired by actor Sean Connery. But for the ports of the game's re-released version, the original design was replaced by Yoji Shinkawa's design.[18]

During the making of Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Hideo Kojima asked Shinkawa to make Naked Snake similar to Solid Snake. But with the differences that unlike Solid Snake, Naked Snake was a rookie and thus acted more naive. Shinkawa stated having no difficulties in designing Naked Snake as basically a revised version of Solid Snake. As a result, Naked Snake is virtually identical to Solid Snake from the previous Metal Gear Solid games in terms of appearance.[19] The love scene between Naked Snake and EVA was inspired by the first Pink Panther. Kojima and Shinkawa watched the movie but the former stated it might have come different from the original version.[20] Since the game's trailers did not state that Naked Snake was Big Boss, Kojima often gave vague answers to the character's true identity.[21] Although the ending of Metal Gear Solid 3 reveals Naked Snake was given the Big Boss title, Kojima stated "he's not really the Big Boss yet". With Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, he wanted to explain how Naked Snake became the man who appeared in the original Metal Gear games as Solid Snake's enemy.[22]


Naked Snake as portrayed in Metal Gear Solid 3 shares the same voice actor as Solid Snake did in the first two Metal Gear Solid games, being voiced by Akio Otsuka in the Japanese version and David Hayter in the English version. Both actors would return to provide Snake's voice in Portable Ops and Peace Walker. The elderly version of Big Boss who appears in the end of Metal Gear Solid 4 is voiced by Chikao Otsuka (Akio Otsuka's real-life father) in Japanese and by Richard Doyle in English.

On June 6, 2013, during Konami's third annual pre-E3 show, it was announced that Kiefer Sutherland would be portraying Snake in Metal Gear Solid V, replacing David Hayter (Akio Otsuka was unaffected by this casting change and continued to portrayed Snake in the Japanese dub). Sutherland plays the original Big Boss (who serves as the playable character in the stand-alone prologue Ground Zeroes), as well as Venom Snake (a new version of the character who serves as the protagonist in the main game The Phantom Pain). In addition to the voice, Sutherland also provided facial capture for the character.[23][24] Sutherland was assigned the role after a suggestion to Kojima from Hollywood producer and director Avi Arad; Kojima's reason was to "have a more subdued performance expressed through subtle facial movements and tone of voice rather than words", and that he "needed someone who could genuinely convey both the facial and vocal qualities of a man in his late 40s".[25][26][27]


In Metal Gear Solid 3, the first in a series of prequels to the original Metal Gear, the game depicts a young version of the character before acquiring the codename "Big Boss". He is initially known by the nickname "Jack" before being given the codename "Naked Snake" (commonly shortened to just "Snake") at the start of the Virtuous Mission, which serves as his main handle throughout the game, making him the first recipient of the Snake codename that Solid Snake and his clone brothers would use in the future stories. At the end of Metal Gear Solid 3, he is bestowed the title of "Big Boss" by President Johnson for defeating his mentor "The Boss". Despite this, the character is still addressed primarily as "Snake" (which drops the "Naked" portion of his codename) in later prequels, which feature him as a playable character such as Portable Ops, Peace Walker and Ground Zeroes.


Big Boss's character has been well-received, with IGN having ranked him number 32 on their 2010 list of top video game villains,[28] and as the fourth top Metal Gear villains.[29] In 2010, IGN's Jesse Schedeen found the character one of the most important characters from the franchise to the point his "influence is felt in every Metal Gear game, even if he isn't always present in the flesh."[30] Computerworld named Big Boss as one of the most creative "badass villains" in video games, citing the complexity of his betrayal of Solid Snake, fueled by Solid Snake being his genetic heir.[31] Additionally, GameSpot listed Big Boss as one of the 20 best Metal Gear bosses with focus on his importance within the series' plot.[32] He was ranked as the 28th "coolest" video game villain by Complex in 2012.[33] Naked Snake's transition to Big Boss was listed as the second hero who turned evil by What Culture with the writer finding the character more interesting than Solid Snake based on his progression across Big Boss's video games.[34]

The inclusion of Naked Snake's role in Metal Gear Solid 3 has also received praise from critics.[35] Prior to the game's release, Naked Snake was often called 'Solid Snake' or simply 'Snake' by critics due to his resemblance with Solid Snake, although some still were not sure about his true identity.[36][37] Additionally, early speculation of the playable character's identity from Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater was listed by IGN as one top ten rumors on the PlayStation 2.[38] GameSpy further noted that various fans started making theories about Naked Snake's identity before the game's release as while they thought it was Solid Snake, the setting from the game made it impossible for Solid Snake to be the game's main protagonist due to their difference of years.[39] Finding the revelation of Naked Snake's identity was considered by GameSpy as "the single coolest thing Kojima could have done in MGS3" because of [Naked Snake's] differences from [Solid Snake] in regards to their personality as well as because it made fans wonder how Naked Snake would become the series antagonist Big Boss.[40] Another comparison between Big Boss's and Solid Snake's character was made by IGN's Phil Pirrello in article titled "Stars Thunderdome: Snake vs. Big Boss."[41] GamesRadar placed his relationship with EVA in their top list of disastrous game romances due to how it was ruined by the two's different roles in the story.[42] Play editor Nick Jones listed Naked Snake's final fight against The Boss in such game as the second best moment from the franchise, citing the emotional focus from their characters.[43] Various gaming sites such as, Game Informer and Kotaku placed his character as one of the worst fathers in video games due to his poor relationship with Solid Snake and the attempts to murder his own son.[44][45][46] David Hayter's performance as Naked Snake's English voice actor in Metal Gear Solid 3 has been criticized by Edge while discussing the dialogues from the game.[47]


Notes Edit

  1. Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain establishes that this individual is Venom Snake and not the original Big Boss.

Footnotes Edit

  1. "Metal Gear MSX2 version, instruction manual" (in Japanese). Konami. 1987. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006. 
  2. "Metal Gear 2 MSX2 version, instruction manual" (in Japanese). Konami. 1990. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. 
  3. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence, Metal Gear. (Konami). (2005) "Big Boss: Solid Snake! You've finally come here. Yeah, I'm Big Boss General Commandant of Foxhound. And in charge of this fortress, Outer Heaven."
  4. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence, Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake. (Konami). (2005) "Solid Snake: Big... Boss?! / Dr. Madnar: The very same! With Metal Gear and OILEX, he plots to rule the world. We cannot let the secret of OILEX fall into his hands!"
  5. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Subsistence, Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake. (Konami). (2005) "Big Boss: Even I make mistakes from time to time. Snake! This will be our final battle... Let's end this once and for all!"
  6. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid. (Konami). (1998) "Liquid Snake: There's a killer inside you... You don't have to deny it. We were created to be that way. / Solid Snake: Created? / Liquid Snake: Les enfants terribles... the terrible children. That's what the project was called. It started in the 1970s. Their plan was to artificially create the most powerful soldier possible. The person that they chose as the model was the man known then as the greatest living soldier in the world..."
  7. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. (Konami). (2001) "Solidus Snake: ...I'm the boss to surpass Big Boss himself..."
  8. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker. (Konami). (2010) "Miller: Naked... That's exactly what you are with this uniform. The pants are the same as the jungle fatigues. Obviously, since you're exposing your bare skin, your defense and camo index are going to be low. On the plus side, it's so light you can move around quicker. / Naked Snake: Good for showing off muscles, too. / Miller: Hey, Snake. I heard they gave you your old code name because you used to run around with your shirt off. Is that true? / Naked Snake: Don't believe everything you hear. They called me "Naked" because I went in without gear or food. I had to procure everything on site."
  9. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. (Konami). (2005) "Zero: Do you copy? You're already in enemy territory, and somebody might be listening in. From here on out, we'll be using codenames to refer to each other. Your codename for this mission will be Naked Snake. I'll be referring to you as Snake from now on. You are not to mention your real name."
  10. EVA: The Boss' defection was a ruse set up by the U.S. government. It was all a big drama staged by Washington so they could get their hands on the Philosopher's Legacy. And The Boss was the star of the show. They planned it so that they could get the Legacy that Colonel Volgin inherited...and destroy the Shagohod at the same time. (Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater) Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, 2005
  11. EVA: (...) Everything was going according to plan, but then something happened that no one could have predicted. Colonel Volgin fired an American-made nuclear warhead at Sokolov's research facility. Khrushchev demanded that the U.S. government provide proof that it wasn't involved. (...) The authorities in Washington knew that in order to prove its innocence they'd have to get rid of The Boss...and that one of their own would have to do the job. (...) That was the mission she was given. (...) She sacrificed her life and her honor for her native land. (Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater) Konami Computer Entertainment Japan, 2005
  12. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater. (Konami). (2005) "Mr. President: You are above even The Boss. I hereby award you the title of Big Boss."
  13. Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops, Kojima Productions (2006)
    Gene: So... You never knew. Six years ago, during Operation Snake Eater, Volgin launched an American nuclear missile at Sokolov's research lab. This caused a change in plans, and the U.S. government had to assassinate its own operative, The Boss, to prove its innocence. And you were the assassin, Snake. / (Naked Snake is speechless) / Gene: Do you really think Volgin committed that terrible crime of his own will? / Naked Snake: What? / Gene: It was all a setup from the very beginning. Volgin launching the nuke... The Boss' death... Even your mission in Groznyj Grad, Snake! It was all the work of your country and a single, deviously cunning strategist. / Naked Snake: You're saying it was all a setup? By who!? / Gene: The Boss gave up her life, even if someone else willed it. She sacrificed her own life for her calling. It was a noble act. / Naked Snake: Answer me! Who set it up?!
  14. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. (Konami). (2008) "Big Mama: "Give birth to Big Boss." To realize this, I asked to serve as the surrogate mother... And was more than happy to carry you in my womb. I loved him. Nine months later, I gave birth to two Big Bosses... You, and [Liquid Snake]. [...] Determined to oppose Zero and his plans, Big Boss broke away from the Patriots."
  15. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. (Konami). PlayStation 3. (2008) "Big Boss: Ever since the day I killed The Boss... with my own two hands... I... was already dead."
  16. Kojima Productions. Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker. (Konami). (2010) "Naked Snake: I won't make the same choice as her. My future's going to be different. / Miller: Then... / Naked Snake: Yeah, that's right. From now on, call me Big Boss."
  17. "E3 2013: Metal Gear Solid V Coming To Xbox One - IGN". Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  18. Parish, Jeremy. "Gear Up! A Metal Gear Retrospective". Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  19. Payton, Ryan. "The KP Report Session 027". Kojima Productions Report. mp.i.revo. Retrieved February 17, 2012. 
  20. "THE SNAKE EATER INTERVIEW". IGN. December 1, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2018. 
  21. C. Perry, Douglass (May 15, 2003). "E3 2003: Hideo Kojima Interview". IGN. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  22. Totilo, Stephen (September 25, 2009). "Hideo Kojima Talks Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker And How You Can Help Him". Kotaku. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  23. Romano, Sal. "Metal Gear Solid V clip teases Snake's new voice actor". Gematsu. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  24. Staff. "Konami's pre-E3 stream: Kiefer Sutherland Playing Snake in Metal Gear Solid 5". VG24/7. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  25. Goldfarb, Andrew. "Kiefer Sutherland Playing Snake in Metal Gear Solid V". IGN. Retrieved June 7, 2013. 
  26. "Kojima on Ground Zeroes". Giant Bomb. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  27. "Interview: Hideo Kojima on darker themes and phantom cigars". Computer and Video Games. Retrieved June 25, 2014. 
  28. IGN editors (July 4, 2010). "Top 100 Videogame Villains". Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2006. 
  29. Scheeden, Jeese. "Top 10 Metal Gear Villains". IGN. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  30. Scheeden, Jeese (January 11, 2010). "Boss of the Day: Metal Gear's Big Boss". IGN. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  31. Gagne, Ken. You can run, but you'll only die tired: Gaming's 'baddest' villains Script error. Computerworld. Retrieved on September 16, 2008
  32. Dodson, Joe (July 28, 2007). "Metal Gear 20 Years of Boss Battles". GameSpot. Retrieved July 5, 2007. 
  33. "28. Big Boss — The 50 Coolest Video Game Villains of All Time". Complex. November 1, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  34. "9 Video Game Heroes Who Turned Evil In The Sequel". What Culture. Retrieved August 4, 2017. 
  35. Ramsay, Randolph (2005). "Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater Review". C NET Australia. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved August 22, 2006. 
  36. "Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater Preview". PALGN. February 29, 2004. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  37. Torres, Ricardo (March 16, 2004). "Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater Updated Impressions". GameSpot. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  38. "Fact or Fiction? The Ten Biggest Rumors on the PlayStation 2". IGN. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  39. "Metal Gear Solid 3 -- Everything We Know". GameSpy. p. 3. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  40. "Metal Gear Solid 3 -- Everything We Know". GameSpy. p. 4. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  41. Pirrello, Phil (January 11, 2010). "Stars Thunderdome: Snake vs. Big Boss". IGN. Retrieved July 5, 2011. 
  42. Meikleham, Dave. "The Top 7… disastrous game romances". GamesRadar. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 
  43. Jones, Nick. "Metal Gear Solid – My Top Five Moments". Play. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  44. Glasser, AJ (June 21, 2009). "Father Knows Best: The Best and Worst Fathers in Video Games". Kotaku. Retrieved August 17, 2011. 
  45. Sharkey, Scott (September 9, 2010). "Gaming's Crappiest Fathers". Game Informer. Retrieved July 18, 2011. 
  46. Ryckert, Dan (September 9, 2010). "Top 5 Crappiest Videogame Dads". Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2011. 
  47. Edge, January 2005; issue 145. Future Publishing. 2005. pp. 80–81. 

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