BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 3 logo
Broadcast area United Kingdom
Frequency FM: 90.2 MHz – 92.6 MHz
DAB: 12B
Freeview: 703
Freesat: 703
Sky (UK only): 0103
Virgin Media: 903
TalkTalk TV: 603
UPC Ireland: 909
First air date 30 September 1967
Format Classical, jazz, world music, drama, culture, arts
Language(s) English
Audience share 1.3% (December 2012, [1])
Owner BBC
Webcast Web Stream
48-kbps Stream URL (eAAC+)
Website Script error

BBC Radio 3 is a national radio station operated by the BBC within the United Kingdom. Its output centres on classical music and opera, but jazz, world music, drama, culture and the arts also feature.[1] The station is the world’s most significant commissioner of new music,[2][3] and through its New Generation Artists scheme promotes young musicians of all nationalities.[4] The station is notable for its broadcast of the BBC Proms concerts, live and in full, each summer in addition to performances by the BBC Orchestras and Singers. There are regular productions of both classic plays and newly commissioned drama.

Radio 3 has won the Sony Radio Academy UK Station of the Year Gold Award for 2009[5] and was nominated again in 2011.[6]

History Edit

BBC Radio 3 was launched on 30 September 1967 as a result of a BBC Radio reshuffle following the launch of new pop music station Radio 1.[7] All of the BBC's radio stations were relaunched to the new numbered system – BBC Radio 3 had succeeded the BBC Third Programme that launched on 29 September 1946[8] and launched alongside BBC Radio 2, formerly the Light Programme, and BBC Radio 4, formerly the BBC Home Service.

Broadcasting in the Seventies Edit

The new station continued on the various strands and programmes that had previously occupied those frequencies – the Third Programme, the Music Programme and various sports and adult education programmes[7] – even persuading Patricia Hughes to return to her broadcast career.

On 4 April 1970, the Broadcasting in the Seventies document was published. Later described in 2002 by Jenny Abramsky, Head of Radio and Music, as "the most controversial document ever produced by radio",[9] the document outlined each station's target audience and what content should be broadcast on each channel. This concept went against the earlier methods laid out by the BBC's first Director General John Reith and caused controversy at the time, despite laying out the current radio structure that is recognisable today.[10]

At the time of the review, Radio 3 faced several problems. An early option to cut costs, required under the proposals, was to reduce the number of networks from four to three, so that Radio 3 would not broadcast during the day and would use the frequencies of either Radio 1 or 2 as the two stations would merge content. However "Day-time serious music would be the casualty" of these proposals and caused some controversy.[11] A further rumour was expressed that Radio 3 could be closed altogether as a strong statistical case existed against the station according to The Guardian.[12] However, the Director-General, Charles Curran, publicly denied this as "quite contradictory to the aim of the BBC, which is to provide a comprehensive radio service".[12] Curran had earlier dismissed any suggestion that Radio 3's small audience was a consideration: "What is decisive is whether there is a worthwhile audience, and I mean by worthwhile an audience which will get an enormous satisfaction out of it."[12]

As a result of Broadcasting in the Seventies, factual content, including documentaries and current affairs, were moved to BBC Radio 4 and the separate titled strands were abolished. The document stated that Radio 3 was to have "a larger output of standard classical music" but with "some element in the evening of cultural speech programmes – poetry, plays".[13] Equally, questions were being asked by the poet Peter Porter about whether other spoken content, for example poetry, would remain on the station. These concerns also led to the composer Peter Maxwell Davies and the music critic Edward Greenfield to fear that "people would lose the mix of cultural experiences which expanded intellectual horizons".[14] However, Radio 3 controller Howard Newby reassured these concerns by replying that only the coverage of political and economic affairs would be passed to Radio 4: Radio 3 would keep drama, poetry, and talks by scientists, philosophers and historians.[14]

The Broadcasting in the Seventies report also proposed a large cutback in the number and size of the BBC's orchestras. In September 1969, a distinguished campaign group entitled the Campaign for Better Broadcasting was formed to protest, with the backing of Sir Adrian Boult, Jonathan Miller, Henry Moore and George Melly.[15] The campaign objected to "the dismantling of the Third Programme by cutting down its spoken word content from fourteen hours a week to six" and "segregating programmes into classes".[16] Mention of the campaign even reached debate in the House of Commons.[17]

The 'arts' controllers Edit

From the launch until 1987, the controllers of Radio 3 showed preferences towards speech and arts programming as opposed to focus on classical music and the Proms. The first controller, Newby, made little contribution to the station, focusing on the transition from the Third programme to Radio 3 and as a result of the Broadcasting in the Seventies report.

The second controller, Hearst who assumed the role in 1972, was different. As Hearst had previously been head of television music and arts[18] his appointment was seen with scepticism among the staff who viewed him as a populariser[19] especially when considered next to rival candidate Martin Esslin, head of Radio Drama, and their differing answers about whether listening figures should impact on the schedule: Hearst responded that as the station was financed by public money it needed to consider the size of its audience – there was a minimum viable figure but this could be increased with "a lively style of broadcasting",[20] Esslin replied that listening figures were irrelevant.[20] Hearst attempted to make the content of the channel more accessible to a wider audience, but his efforts, which included the evening drivetime programme Homeward Bound and Sunday phone-in request programme Your Concert Choice, were criticised.[21][22] However, during this time the long running arts discussion programme Critics’ Forum was launched[23] as well as themed evenings and programmes of miscellaneous music including Sounds Interesting.[24]

In 1978, Ian McIntyre took over as controller of Radio 3 but quickly faced uncomfortable relationships between departments. At approximately the same time Aubrey Singer became Managing Director of Radio and began to make programming on the station more populist in a drive to retain listeners in face of possible competition from competitors using a "streamed format".[25] An example of this is the replacement of Homeward Bound in 1980 with an extended programme called Mainly for Pleasure. The same year an internal paper recommended the disbandment of several of the BBC's orchestras and of the Music Division, resulting in low morale and industrial action by musicians that delayed the start of the Proms.[26] Senior management was also getting dissatisfied with listening figures leading to the Director-General Alasdair Milne to suggest that presentation style was "too stodgy and old-fashioned".[27]

The 'music' controllers Edit

In 1987 the positions of Controller of Music and Controller of Radio 3 were merged, and with it the operation of the Proms, under the former Music Controller John Drummond. Drummond, like Hearst, believed that the music programmes' presentation was too stiff and formal[28][29] and he therefore encouraged announcers to be more natural and enthusiastic. Repeats of classic drama performances by the likes of John Gielgud and Paul Scofield was also included after he found that newer drama was "gloomy and pretentious".[30] He also introduced features and celebrations of the anniversaries of famous figures including William Glock, Michael Tippett and Isaiah Berlin. Drummond also introduced the show Mixing It which targeted the music genres that fell between Radios 1 and 3, often seen as a precursor to the programme Late Junction.

During Drummond's time, Radio 3 also began to experiment with outside broadcasts including an ambitious Berlin Weekend to mark the reunification of Germany in 1990 and a much praised weekend of programming that was broadcast from London and Minneapolis-St Paul – creating broadcasting history by being the first time a whole weekend had been transmitted "live from another continent".[31] However, Drummond complained about the former that "not one single senior person in the BBC had listened to any part of it",[31] reflecting his general feeling that the BBC senior management paid little attention stating: "I can't remember ever having a serious conversation with anyone above me in the BBC about Radio 3 ... I would much rather have had the feeling that they thought it mattered what Radio 3 did."[32]


Drummond's successor was Nicholas Kenyon, previously chief music critic of The Observer, who took over in February 1992 and was immediately faced with the looming launch date for commercial competitor Classic FM who were, and still remain, Radio 3's biggest rivals. Kenyon, similar to Singer a decade earlier, believed that Radio 3 had to make changes to its presentation before the new station began broadcasting rather than react later.[33][34] As a result three senior producers were sent to study classical music stations in the United States[34] and the station hired advertising agents Saatchi & Saatchi to help improve public perception. Kenyon's tenure was to met with much controversy: in attempts to update the station's presentation, popular announcers Malcolm Ruthven, Peter Barker and Tony Scotland were axed; drama was cut by a quarter resulting in a letter of protest to The Times signed by Harold Pinter, Tom Stoppard and Fay Weldon among others;[35] two new programmes for drive time, entitled On Air and In Tune, were launched[36] and a new three-hour programme of popular classics on Sunday mornings fronted by Brian Kay was also launched.[35]

These moves were defended by Kenyon who argued that the changes were not "some ghastly descent into populism" but were instead to create "access points" for new listeners.[36] However there was still "widespread disbelief"[37] when it was announced in the summer that a new morning programme would take the 09:00 spot from the revered Composer of the Week and would be presented by a signing from Classic FM – the disc jockey Paul Gambaccini. The criticism, especially once the programme went on air a few weeks later, was so unrelenting that Gambaccini announced the following spring that he would not be renewing his contract with Radio 3.[37]

However, Kenyon’s controllership was marked by several highly distinguished programming successes. Fairest Isle was an ambitious project from 1995 which marked the 300th anniversary of the death of Henry Purcell with a year-long celebration of British music and the programme Sounding the Century, which ran for two years from 1997, presented a retrospective of 20th-century music. Both won awards.[38] He also introduced a number of well received specialist programmes including children’s programme The Music Machine, early music programme Spirit of the Age, jazz showcase Impressions, vocal music programme Voices and the arts programme Night Waves.

BBC Radio 3 began nighttime transmissions in 1996 with the introduction of Through the Night, consisting of radio recordings from members of the European Broadcasting Union and distributed to some of these other stations under the title Euroclassic Notturno.[39] The introduction of 24-hour broadcasting resulted in the introduction of a 22.00 fixed programming point so that if live programme overran, later programming could be cancelled to allow Through the Night to begin promptly.

In 1998, Roger Wright took over as controller of the station. Soon after his appointment some changes were made to showcase a wider variety of music; a new, relaxed, late-night music programme Late Junction featured a wide variety of genres; programmes focusing on jazz and world music were given a higher profile as were programmes presented by Brian Kay, focusing on light music, and Andy Kershaw, whose show was previously dropped by Radio 1. In these changes, Wright believed that, in the case of the former, he was addressing "this feeling people had that they didn't want to put Radio 3 on unless they were going to listen carefully"[40] and in the latter cases that he was "not dumbing down but a smarting up" the programmes.[41]

File:BBC Radio 3.png

By 2004, Radio 3's programming and services were being recognised by the corporation at large, as seen in the 2003/4 Charter renewal application and the Annual report for the year which reported that Radio 3 had "achieved a record [audience] reach in the first quarter of 2004",[42] and by the government: the Secretary of State's foreword to the government’s Green Paper in 2005 made special mention of "the sort of commitment to new talent that has made Radio 3 the largest commissioner of new music in the world" as a model for what the BBC should be about.[43]

By 2008 however, the station faced pressures to increase its audience by making programmes more accessible while loyal listeners began to complain about the tone of these new changes. Presentation was described as "gruesome in tone and level"[44] and global music output was mocked as "street-smart fusions" and "global pop".[45] At the same time RAJAR began to record lower listening figures and decisions on policy were being changed resulting in the children's programmeMaking Tracks, experimental music programme Mixing It, theatre and film programme Stage and Screen and Brian Kay’s Light Programme being dropped, a reduction in the number of concerts[46][47] and format changes to several other programmes. In spite of the changes, figures still continued to fall.[48]

File:Ninth Symphony original.png

The mid to late 2000s did however offer new projects undertaken on the station: The Beethoven Experience in June 2005 saw the broadcast of his works broadcast non-stop for six days.[49] A similar project occurred six months later when A Bach Christmas was ran for ten days in the lead to Christmas[50] and in February 2007 when a week was similarly given over to the works of Tchaikovsky and Stravinsky.[51] As part of the original Beethoven Experience, the BBC trialled its first music downloads over the internet by offering free music downloads of all nine symphonies as played by the BBC Philharmonic Orchestra under Gianandrea Noseda. The stated aim was "to gauge audiences' appetite for music downloads and their preferred content, and will inform the development of the BBC strategy for audio downloads and on demand content".[52] The experiment was wildly successful, attracting 1.4 million downloads but was met with anger from the major classical record labels who considered it unfair competition and "devaluing the perceived value of music".[53] As a result, no further free downloads have been offered, including as part of the BBC iPlayer service, and the BBC Trust has ruled out any classical music podcasts with extracts longer than one minute.

In 2007, Radio 3 also began to experiment with a visual broadcast as well as the audio transmissions. In October 2007, Radio 3 collaborated with English National Opera in presenting a live video stream of a performance of Carmen, "the first time a UK opera house has offered a complete production online"[54] and in September 2008, Radio 3 launched a filmed series of concerts that was available to watch live and on demand for seven days "in high quality vision".[55] This strategy was also introduced to some of the BBC Proms concerts.

By the latter years of the 2000s, Radio 3's prospects were improving. The year 2008/9 saw the introduction of more concerts[56] and other innovations had introduced Radio 3's largest event to a wider audience. The introduction of family orientated concerts to the BBC Proms, which is broadcast live on Radio 3, helped the station to introduce itself to a younger audience. Innovations of this type began in 2008 with the introduction of a concert celebrating the music from the television programme Doctor Who as composed by Murray Gold[57] and was later followed by a further Doctor Who Prom in 2010[58][59] as well as a free family prom in 2009,[60] a free Horrible Histories prom in 2011[61] and a Wallace and Gromit prom in the 2012 season.[62] The Proms were done under the supervision of Wright, who became director of the Proms in addition to his duties at Radio 3 in October 2007,[63] and many were also televised for broadcast at a later date. The mix in these proms of classical music in tie with the programme and music of a classical nature from the programme was hoped to introduce a young audience to the genres catered for by Radio 3.[58]

Radio 3 is currently having to undergo further changes as a result of recent findings from the BBC Trust. In the stations latest service review, carried out in 2010, the Trust recommended the station become more accessible to new audiences, easier to navigate through the different genres and to review the output of the BBC's orchestras and singers.[64] Soon after this verdict, the license fee was capped and the BBC given more services to pay for with the same level of income. As a result the corporation had to reduce its costs. In the proposal entitled Delivering Quality First, the BBC proposed that Radio 3 contribute by broadcasting 25% fewer live or specially recorded lunchtime concerts and reducing the number of specially recorded evening concerts.[65] The Trust did recognise however that "Radio 3 plays a vital role in the cultural and creative life of the UK"[65] and as a result, the report did agree to reinvest in the Proms,[65] to retain the long dramas found on the station[65] and to continue to broadcast a new concert live each evening.[65]

Operation Edit

File:Broadcasting House and East Wing.jpg

BBC Radio 3 broadcasts from studios inside the 1930s wing of Broadcasting House in central London. However, in addition to these studios, certain programmes and performances are broadcast from other BBC bases including from BBC Cymru Wales' Cardiff headquarters and BBC North's headquarters at MediaCityUK, Salford.[66] The BBC also has recording facilities at the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal Festival Hall and the Queen Elizabeth Hall which can be used to record and broadcast performances at these venues.[67]

BBC Radio 3 is broadcast on the FM band between 90.2 and 92.6 MHz as well as on DAB Digital Radio, the digital television services Freeview, Freesat, Sky, Virgin Media, TalkTalk TV and UPC Ireland. Radio 3 programmes can also be listened to live on the Radio 3 Website through the RadioPlayer and BBC iPlayer services; the latter of these services also allows Radio 3 programmes to be heard for a week after broadcast.

On its FM frequencies, the station does not use dynamic range compression of the volume of music during the evening[68] – this is in contrast to rival station Classic FM. As compression can be defined by the user, this is not an issue with the Digital Radio platform.

The station also uses a BBC designed NICAM style digitisation technique called pulse code modulation, which is used for outside broadcasts running through a telephone line, which runs at a sample rate of 14,000 per second per channel. A similar technique was later used for recording at the same rate. In September 2010, for the final week of the Proms broadcasts, the BBC trialled XHQ (Extra High Quality), a live internet stream transmitted at a rate of 320kbit/s, instead of Radio 3's usual 192kbit/s, using its AAC-LC 'Coyopa' coding technology.[69] this technology was later developed so that Radio 3 is now the first BBC Radio station to be broadcasting permanently in this High Definition Sound (as it has been termed) format.[70]

Notable programmes Edit

Choral Evensong Edit

File:Westminster abbey west.jpg

The Anglican service of sung Evening Prayer is broadcast weekly on Radio 3 live from cathedrals, university college chapels and churches throughout the UK.[71] On occasion, it carries Choral Vespers from Catholic cathedrals, such as Westminster Cathedral, or a recorded service from choral foundations abroad. Choral Evensong is the BBC’s longest-running outside broadcast programme, the first edition having been relayed from Westminster Abbey on 7 October 1926.[71] Its 80th anniversary was celebrated, also live from Westminster Abbey, with a service on 11 October 2006.[72]

The programme has a strong following,[73] revealed by various unpopular attempts in the past to change the broadcast arrangements. When the programme was moved from Radio 4 to Radio 3 in 1970 it became a monthly broadcast but vigorous protests resulted in a return of the weekly transmission on Wednesday afternoons.[74]

More recently, in 2007 the live broadcast was switched to Sundays which again resulted in protests.[75] The live transmission was returned to Wednesdays in September 2008 with a recorded repeat on Sunday afternoons. Choral Evensong forms part of Radio 3's remit on religious programming though the musical performance and repertoire holds interest for a wider audience.

Composer of the Week Edit

Composer of the Week is claimed as the longest-running classical music programme in Britain, having been launched in August 1943.[76] It was first broadcast on the Third Programme, under its original title of This Week’s Composer, in 1964 when the station’s daytime broadcasting began.[77] Each week, in five daily programmes, the work of a particular composer is studied in detail and illustrated with musical excerpts. Bach, Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Handel have all featured once most years,[76] a different aspect of their work being chosen for study each time. However, the programme also covers more 'difficult' or less-widely known composers, with weeks devoted to Rubbra, Medtner, Havergal Brian and the Minimalists among others. The regular presenter is currently Donald Macleod.

CD Review Edit

CD Review is a Saturday morning programme dealing with new classical music releases, topical issues and interviews. The programme title is an update of Record Review which was broadcast on Network Three occasionally from 1949, then weekly from 1957. It includes the feature Building a Library which surveys and recommends available recordings of specific works. In 2006 Building a Library was attacked as 'elitist' for including such composers as Karl Amadeus Hartmann and Elliott Carter and lesser-known works of great composers, at the expense of well-known mainstream works.[78] However, the charge was rebutted by the programme's producer, Mark Lowther, who said that Radio 3 audiences wanted programmes that challenged and inspired.[79] The regular presenter of CD Review is Andrew McGregor.[80]

Jazz Record Requests Edit

Jazz Record Requests was the first weekly jazz programme on the Third Programme. First presented by the jazz musician Humphrey Lyttelton, the 30-minute programme was launched in December 1964 and is still running. Now an hour long, it is still broadcast on Saturday, usually in the late afternoon. Presenters on Radio 3 have included Steve Race, Peter Clayton, Charles Fox and Geoffrey Smith. The current presenter, since May 2012, is Alyn Shipton.[81]

Pied Piper Edit

Pied Piper was an iconic children’s programme, presented by the 29-year-old early music specialist, David Munrow, it had the sub-title Tales and Music for Younger Listeners[82] and ran from August 1971 until 1976. Lively and varied, it was aimed at the 6–12 age group, though much older children and adults also listened.[83] The programme ran for five series and a total of 655 episodes until it was brought to an end by Munrow’s untimely death in May 1976.

News broadcasts Edit

BBC Radio 3's remit focuses mainly on music and the arts and news is therefore a minor part of its output. However the station still provides short news bulletins through the Breakfast programme, at 1 pm and in the early evening on weekdays to give listeners the chance to switch to another station, for example BBC Radio 4 or BBC Radio 5 Live, should a news item interest or affect them in any way.[84][85] Following the Delivering Quality First proposals, it was suggested that Radio 3 share bulletins with Radio 4, so that the same bulletins would be prepared and announced on both channels.[65]

The newsreading team includes Catriona Young, Vaughan Savidge, Jill Anderson, Ian Skelly, David McNeil, Alison Rooper, John Shea and Susan Rae. Paul Guinery has been described as "an exemplary reader".[86]

Performing Groups Edit

Main article: BBC Orchestras and Singers

Much of Radio 3's orchestral output is sourced from the BBC's Orchestras and Singers. These groups are:

In addition to the BBC's own orchestras it also has broadcast commitments to the BBC Big Band, which is externally managed, and also broadcasts some works of the Ulster Orchestra, which it part funds.[87]

Controllers Edit

An author, he published four novels during his time at the Third Programme/Radio 3, winning the first Booker Prize for fiction in 1969. Oversaw the implementation of Broadcasting in the Seventies and an increase in the amount of classical music on Radio 3.[13]
Previously head of BBC's television music and arts department, Hearst attempted to make Radio 3 more accessible to a wider audience by introducing drivetime and request programmes as well as themed weekends. Some of these ventures were poorly viewed by critics.[21][22]
Previously controller of Radio 4, McIntyre faced budgetary cuts that closed several orchestras and uncomfortable relations with the Music Division.[88] The possibility of future competition to Radio 3 also resulted in more programmes viewed as populist by critics in an attempt to retain listeners.[89]
Previously an administrator for events including the Edinburgh Festival, Drummond introduced repeats of classic drama performances and celebrations of artists anniversaries. His work also included programmes targeting fringe genres and ambitious outside broadcasts.
Kenyon, previously chief music critic of The Observer, made many controversial decisions relating to accessibility to the service in light of the launch of Classic FM including new drive time programmes. However several celebrated programmes and series of programmes were launched and Radio 3 began 24-hour broadcasting.
Wright has been notable in trying to ensure all of the stations musical genres are represented equally and for "smartening up" programmes. While some of these measures are being recognised by the BBC and Government, the audience numbers for the station began falling and attempts by Wright to make programmes more accessible and predictable was met with complaints from loyal listeners.

Controversy Edit

Controller Nicholas Kenyon summed up the perennial problem of Radio 3 as "the tension between highbrow culture and popular appeal …the cost of what we do and the number of people who make use of it”:[90] elitism versus populism (or ‘dumbing down’) and the question of cost per listener. This argument has included members of the BBC, listeners and several different protest groups.

In 1969, two hundred members of the BBC staff protested to the director general at changes which would ‘emasculate’ Radio 3, while managing director of radio Ian Trethowan described the station in a memorandum as "a private playground for elitists to indulge in cerebral masturbation".[91] Later, former Radio 3 controller John Drummond complained that the senior ranks of the BBC took no interest in what he was doing.[92]

The Gambaccini issue arose in 1995/6 as listeners and press critics protested the introduction into a slot formerly used for Composer of the Week of a program presented by Paul Gambaccini, a former Radio 1 and Classic FM presenter. This was seen as part of a wider move towards popularisation, to compete with Classic FM and to increase ratings.[93] Gambaccini is quoted as saying: “I had a specific mission to invite [Radio 4’s] Today listeners to stay with the BBC rather than go to Classic FM.”[94]

Several groups have been formed in the past to protest against any changed to the station. These have included:

  • The Third Programme Defence Society (1957) opposed cuts in broadcasting hours and the removal of what the BBC considered "too difficult and too highbrow". Supported by TS Eliot, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Laurence Olivier[95]
  • The Campaign for Better Broadcasting (1969) opposed proposed cuts in Radio 3’s speech output. Supported by Sir Adrian Boult, Jonathan Miller, Henry Moore, George Melly.[96]
  • Friends of Radio 3 (FoR3)[97] (from 2003), a listeners’ campaign group set up to express concern at changes to the station's style and scheduling, including the shift to presenter-led programmes stripped through the week, as on Classic FM and other commercial music stations. Officially, the BBC stated that "the network's target audience has been redefined and broadened and the schedule began to be recast to move towards this during 1999."[98] The group’s stated aim is "To engage with the BBC, to question the policies which depart from Radio 3's remit to deliver a high quality programme of classical music, spoken arts and thought, and to convey listener concerns to BBC management." Supported by Dame Gillian Weir, Robin Holloway, Andrew Motion, Dame Margaret Drabble.[99] Roger Wright has said he does not consider FoR3 representative of Radio 3 listeners as a whole.[100]

See also Edit

Script error

References Edit

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  2. "British Academy of Composers and Songwriters". Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008. 
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  11. Carpenter, Envy, p. 249
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Carpenter, Envy, p. 251
  13. 13.0 13.1 Carpenter, Envy, p. 253
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  16. Briggs (1985), p. 355
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  19. Carpenter Envy, p. 269
  20. 20.0 20.1 Carpenter, Envy, p. 268
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  25. Carpenter Envy, p. 304
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Works cited Edit

  • BBC Annual Report and Accounts, 2003/2004, London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 2004
  • Briggs, Asa, The BBC: The First Fifty Years, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985 ISBN 0-19-212971-6
  • Carpenter, Humphrey, The Envy of the World: Fifty Years of the BBC Third Programme and Radio 3, 1946–1996, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1996 ISBN 0-297-81830-9
  • Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Review of the BBC’s Royal Charter: A strong BBC, independent of government (government Green Paper), 2005
  • Drummond, John, Tainted by Experience: A Life in the Arts, London: Faber & Faber, 2001 ISBN 0-571-20922-X
  • Radio Times, 1923–present, London: British Broadcasting Corporation ISSN 0033-8060 02

External links Edit

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