Alien is a science-fiction horror media franchise centered on the film series depicting Warrant Officer Ellen Ripley (played by Sigourney Weaver) and her battles with an extraterrestrial lifeform, commonly referred to as "the Alien".
Produced and distributed by 20th Century Fox, the series began with Alien (1979), directed by Ridley Scott. It was followed by three sequels, Aliens (1986), Alien³ (1992), and Alien Resurrection (1997). Scott also directed a prequel series, composed of Prometheus (2012) and Alien: Covenant (2017).
The series has led to numerous books, comics, and video game spin-offs. The Alien vs. Predator franchise combines the continuities of the Alien franchise with the Predator franchise, and consists of two films as well as varying series of comics, books and video games. A video game called Alien: Isolation was released in 2014 to generally positive reviews.
After completion of the film Dark Star (1974), writer Dan O'Bannon wanted to develop some of the ideas (especially "alien hunts crew through a spaceship") and create a science-fiction action film. Provisionally called Memory, screenwriter Ronald Shusett collaborated with O'Bannon on the project, adding elements from a previous O'Bannon script, Gremlins, which featured gremlins causing mayhem aboard a World War II bomber. The duo finished the script, initially titled Star Beast — it was changed to Alien after O'Bannon noticed the number of times the word "alien" occurred in the script. Their script was sold to Brandywine Productions, a company formed by producers Gordon Carroll, David Giler, and Walter Hill which had a distribution deal with 20th Century Fox. The writers expected it to be a low-budget film, but the success of Star Wars inclined 20th Century Fox to invest millions.
In the original script, the ship had an all-male crew (though the script's "Cast of Characters" section explicitly states that "The crew is unisex and all parts are interchangeable for men or women"), including the Ripley character, who was to be played by Tom Skerritt. Later, when Fox president Alan Ladd Jr. and the producers at Brandywine heard rumors of Fox working on other titles with strong female leads, it was decided to cast a female as Ripley and Skerritt became Captain Dallas. Shortly before filming began, Veronica Cartwright was set for the Ripley role, but director Scott opted for Sigourney Weaver following screen tests. Cartwright played Navigator Lambert in the movie, the final crew member to be killed.
Swiss painter and sculptor H. R. Giger designed the alien creature's adult form and the derelict ship, while French artist Mœbius created the look of the spacesuits and Ron Cobb provided most of the on-set design.
While the first film of the series, directed by Ridley Scott, was successful, Fox did not consider a sequel until 1983, when James Cameron expressed his interest to producer David Giler in continuing the Alien story. After Cameron's The Terminator became a box office hit, Cameron and partner Gale Anne Hurd were given approval to direct and produce the sequel to Alien, scheduled for a 1986 release. Cameron wrote the screenplay from a story he developed with Giler and Walter Hill.
Following the second film, Weaver was not interested in returning to the series and so producers David Giler and Walter Hill commissioned a third Alien film without the Ripley character. The premise was to return Ripley in a fourth installment, but Fox's president Joe Roth did not agree with Ripley's removal and Weaver was offered a $5 million salary and a producer credit to make Alien³. Released in 1992, the film was troubled from the start, with production beginning without even a finished script. With $1 million already spent on production, music video director David Fincher, the third director considered for the film, was hired to helm the project. Giler, Hill and Larry Ferguson wrote the screenplay, based on a story from an earlier script by Vincent Ward. After production was completed in late 1991, the studio reworked the film without Fincher's involvement or consent. The death of Ripley was designed to bring closure to the Alien franchise by killing off the principal character.
While fans and critics initially did not receive Alien³ well, the film still did well at the box office worldwide and piqued Fox's interest in continuing the franchise. In 1996, production on the fourth Alien film, Alien Resurrection, began. Ripley was not in the script's first draft, and Weaver was not interested in reprising the role. She joined the project after being offered an $11 million salary and more creative control, including director approval. The script, set 200 years after Alien³, resurrected the Ripley character via human cloning. The film, directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet and released in 1997, experienced an extended production and was described by screenwriter Joss Whedon as having done "everything wrong" with his script.
List of filmsEdit
|Alien: The Complete Series|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Running time||724 minutes (6 films)|
Total (6 films):|
Total (6 films):|
On its way back to Earth, the U.S. commercial spaceship Nostromo is diverted to a desolate planetoid by a cryptic signal from a derelict alien spacecraft. While exploring the alien ship, one of the Nostromo's crewmen discovers the remains of the ship's pilot and also a large chamber that contains thousands of egg-like objects. One of the eggs releases a creature that attaches itself to his face and renders him unconscious. The others break quarantine to bring him back aboard the ship. The parasite dies and the crewman wakes up, seemingly fine. Soon afterwards, an alien organism bursts from his chest and grows extremely rapidly into a terrifying eight-foot (about 2.5 meters) tall creature that starts killing off the crew.
After 57 years in hypersleep, the sole survivor of the Nostromo, WO Ellen Ripley, awakens aboard a medical space station orbiting Earth. Her story of the Alien terror she encountered is disbelieved and she learns that the planetoid from the first film (now designated as LV-426) is now home to a terraforming colony. When contact with the colony is lost, Ripley, against her better judgment and to regain her pilot's license, hesitantly accompanies a squad of high-tech Elite Colonial Marines aboard the spaceship Sulaco to investigate. Once there, they discover the colonists have been wiped out after finding the derelict alien ship (and its deadly cargo) from the first film.
Due to a fire aboard the Sulaco, an escape pod carrying the survivors of the second film is automatically jettisoned. It crash-lands on the refinery/prison planet Fiorina "Fury" 161, but Ripley is the only one to survive the crash. Unbeknownst to her, some alien facehuggers were also aboard the ship. Before long, a full-sized Alien is then loose in the prison, killing the inmates and staff. Ripley also discovers there is an Alien queen growing inside her, and must not only kill the rampaging Alien but also herself in order to save humanity.
Alien Resurrection (1997)Edit
Two hundred years after the events of the previous film, several clones of Ellen Ripley (including the alien queen she was carrying) are produced. The Alien queen is surgically removed from her body as the United Systems Military hopes to breed Aliens to study on the spaceship USM Auriga, using human hosts kidnapped and delivered to them by a group of mercenaries. The Aliens escape their enclosures, while Ripley 8 (a clone with some Alien DNA herself) and the mercenaries attempt to escape and destroy the Auriga before it reaches Earth.
Some thirty years before the events of Alien, scientists Elizabeth Shaw and Charlie Holloway discover a star map among the remnants of several ancient Earth cultures. Seeking the origins of humanity, they journey aboard the spaceship Prometheus and arrive on a distant world in the Zeta2 Reticuli system, the same region of space in which the planetoid from Alien is found. There they discover the remains of an advanced civilization (the same race as the dead pilot from the derelict ship in Alien), who were developing biological weapons which could have driven the human race extinct.
Development of a fifth film in the series began in the early 2000s when both Ridley Scott and James Cameron started to develop ideas for a story that would explore the origins of the Alien. In 2002, the development of Alien vs. Predator had taken precedence, and the fifth Alien film project remained dormant until 2009 when Scott again showed interest. Jon Spaihts wrote a script for an Alien prequel, but Scott then opted for a slightly different direction. In late 2010, Damon Lindelof joined the project to rewrite Spaihts's script, and he and Scott developed a story that precedes the events of Alien but is less of a direct prequel to it, concentrating more on discovering the advanced race that created the titular Aliens rather than the Aliens themselves (though variants of the Alien in its facehugger and full-sized form are seen in the film). According to Scott, although the film shares "strands of Alien's DNA, so to speak," and takes place in the same universe, Prometheus explores its own mythology and ideas. Prometheus was released in 2012 and stars Noomi Rapace, Michael Fassbender, Charlize Theron, Idris Elba and Guy Pearce. The film grossed over $400 million worldwide and garnered mostly positive reviews, with a 73% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
Alien: Covenant (2017)Edit
Eleven years after the events of Prometheus, the colony ship Covenant, carrying thousands of colonists and hundreds of human embryos in cryo-stasis, makes its way towards the planet Origae-6. The crew intercepts a transmission sent from Shaw, which they decide to trace to the apparently habitable Engineer home world, devoid of all non-floral life. When several crew members are infected by the mutagen and give birth to a new breed of alien life, the Neomorphs, the android David 8 rescues them. His motivations to create Aliens and destroy human life are made apparent, however, and with the birth of the first Aliens, the survivors, now led by Daniels, are forced to flee from the world. After disposing of the Alien, the crew members are put back into cryosleep by someone they believe to be their shipboard synthetic, Walter. Only when Daniels is put in her cryopod does she realize that Walter has been replaced by the identical David. With the crew, colonists and embryos at his mercy, David contacts Earth, stating that while the majority of the crew was killed in the neutrino blast, they would be continuing on towards Origae-6.
By March 2014, a Prometheus sequel was in development, with Scott set to return as the director. Michael Green wrote a script based on a first draft from Jake Paglan, which reportedly was more like a horror film than the original. Shooting was scheduled to begin in February 2016, with a planned release date of October 6, 2017, which was eventually brought up to May 19, 2017. Rumored to be titled Paradise, but originally revealed as Alien: Paradise Lost, the film was later retitled Alien: Covenant. Actors Michael Fassbender and Katherine Waterston were expected to appear, with Waterston in the lead role of Daniels. Though Scott claimed that Noomi Rapace's character would be returning for Alien: Covenant in November 2015, he confirmed in an interview in January 2016 that Rapace would not be reprising her role and that the casting process for the lead roles were ongoing. However, it was later confirmed that Rapace was, in fact, reprising her role and that the cast would also include Michael Fassbender, Katherine Waterston, Billy Crudup, Danny McBride and Demian Bichir.
In the mid-1990s, screenwriter Stuart Hazeldine wrote a treatment titled Alien: Earthbound. Fox executives were impressed by the script, having read it after Alien Resurrection had entered post-production.
Joss Whedon had written an Earth-set script for Alien 5, but Sigourney Weaver was not interested and wanted it to be set on the original planetoid. She has remained open to a role on the condition that she likes the story. Before 20th Century Fox greenlit Alien vs. Predator, James Cameron had been collaborating on the plot for a fifth Alien film with another writer, but ceased work on learning of the crossover. Cameron stated that the crossover would "kill the validity of the franchise," and that "it was Frankenstein Meets Werewolf" – like "Universal just taking their assets and starting to play them off against each other." Although he liked the final product, he ruled out any future involvement with the series.
In a 2002 interview, Ridley Scott stated that a new Alien project "would be a lot of fun", but "the most important thing was to get the story right". Scott's concept for the plot was "to go back to where the alien creatures were first found and explain how they were created.", which became the basis of his prequel series. In late 2008, Weaver hinted in an interview with MTV that she and Scott were working on an Alien spin-off film, which would focus on the chronicles of Ellen Ripley rather than on the Aliens, but the continuation of Ripley's story has not materialized. Instead, Scott worked on a prequel that explained the "Space Jockey" found on the derelict spacecraft from Alien, titled Prometheus, which was released in 2012.
In 2014, Sigourney Weaver hinted that she was interested in returning to the role of Ripley, stating that Resurrection's ending "feels incomplete to me. I wish it didn't, but it does. We left it hanging. And there's a way to finish this story that I think would be satisfying to me and the many fans." She also stated regarding the hybrid character that "had we done a fifth one, I don't doubt that her humanity would have prevailed."
In February 2015, director Neill Blomkamp posted concept art on his Instagram feed, saying in an interview that he had been "wanting to make an Alien film for like years and years" and had developed the story and artwork after working on Chappie with Weaver. Weaver responded that she would be willing to reprise her role as Ripley if Blomkamp was directing. On February 18, 2015, it was confirmed that Blomkamp would direct a new Alien film featuring Weaver. Although no official statement was made, the film was believed to disregard the events of Alien³ and Resurrection, and instead directly follow Aliens. Blomkamp denied these rumors, saying instead that he simply favored the first two films and wanted his to tie into them. Weaver has specified "It's just as if, you know, the path forks and one direction goes off to Alien³ and Alien Resurrection and another direction goes off to Neill's movie." In March 2015, Blomkamp reported that the title of the film would not be Alien 5 and further confirmed plans for more than one Alien sequel/prequel.
A fan at Pensacon in March 2015 reported that actor Michael Biehn, who played Corporal Dwayne Hicks in Aliens, confirmed in a private conversation that he had been contacted regarding the film. On March 24, 2015, Sharlto Copley revealed his interest in portraying an Alien. On May 20, 2015, Bill Paxton also expressed interest in reprising his role from Aliens. On June 29, 2015, Blomkamp stated filming was set to begin in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. In August 2015, however, it was reported that the project was on hold until at least 2017. In September 2015, Ridley Scott confirmed that he would produce, and that production would begin after that of the sequel to Prometheus was finished. Blomkamp stated in October 2015 that the Alien project might be shelved pending the outcome of the second prequel film, and thus he would be moving on to other projects. During a VMware event in April 2016, Weaver stated she thought that the proposed fifth Alien film would still go into production after the completion of Alien: Covenant. Late that month, Blomkamp shared concept art via Instagram, featuring an adult version of Newt, a character who appeared in Aliens. Weaver told Variety that both she and Blomkamp hoped to finish Ripley's story in the film. In January, Blomkamp said that the odds of the film going into production were "slim". In April, Scott said that he didn't think the film will ever be made. He elaborated that there was never a complete script, just a 10-page pitch, which Fox decided they didn't wish to pursue any further. Commentators have noted this goes against Weaver's and James Cameron's statements about reading Blomkamp's script for the film, although it's possible Weaver and Cameron were referring to the pitch document. On May 1, 2017, Ridley Scott confirmed that Blomkamp's film had been officially cancelled, and stated that its title had been Alien: Awakening, and that he had repurposed the film to be set between Prometheus and Alien: Covenant. Fans of the franchise have started a petition to help save Blomkamp's cancelled film.
Planned sequel to Alien: CovenantEdit
In September 2015, Ridley Scott revealed he was planning two sequels to Prometheus which would lead into the first Alien film, also stating that there might be "even a fourth film before we get back into the Alien franchise." In November 2015, Scott confirmed that Alien: Covenant would be the first of three more films before linking up with original Alien, thus starting a new trilogy of sci-fi films, and stated that the Prometheus sequels would reveal who created the Aliens. According to an interview with Scott that took place on the set of Alien: Covenant in 2016, Scott had the screenplay for the third prequel film written while working on Alien: Covenant, so that he could "be ready to go again next year." Scott also mentioned the revived franchise might go on for even longer than previously mentioned; "I can keep cranking it for another six. I'm not going to close it down again. No way." In March 2017, Scott stated that if Alien: Covenant and the film that would follow it were successful, he had plans for another three Alien films. Scott explained: "It will go Prometheus, Awakening, Covenant." In May 2017, Scott revealed that Alien: Awakening was originally the name of Neill Blomkamp's since-cancelled Aliens sequel. 20th Century Fox is currently reassessing the sequels pitched by Scott, due to Covenant under-performing at the box office. In the audio commentary for Alien: Covenant, Scott confirmed that a sequel to Alien: Covenant, tentatively referred to as Alien: Covenant 2, is being written by John Logan, with Fassbender, Waterston and McBride reprising their roles. Scott also confirmed that the film will cap his prequel series, leading directly into the events of Alien. In an interview with Variety on September 20, 2017, Stacey Snider, the current chief-executive-officer of 20th Century Fox, stated that while Alien: Covenant was a financial disappointment they still trust Ridley Scott to know the right story and to proceed with the sequel. In an interview Ridley discussed how the film will center on the A.I. character David.
Inspired by the Dark Horse Comics series, the filmmakers of Predator 2 (1990) incorporated an easter egg in which an Alien skull was seen in a Predator trophy case. Expansions upon this shared universe between the Alien and Predator franchises followed, through comics and video games, until a film franchise was launched with the release of Alien vs. Predator in 2004, followed by the sequel Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem in 2007, which spawned various new comics, novels, video games, and other merchandise based upon or inspired by the films.
Alien vs. Predator (2004)Edit
In 2004, a Predator mothership arrives in Earth orbit to draw humans to an ancient Predator training ground on Bouvetøya, an island about one thousand miles north of Antarctica. A buried pyramid giving off a "heat bloom" attracts a group of explorers led by Charles Bishop Weyland (Lance Henriksen), the original founder and CEO of Weyland Industries, who unknowingly activates an Alien egg production line as a hibernating Alien Queen is awakened within the pyramid. Three Predators descend unto the planet and enters the structure, killing all humans in their way with the intention of hunting the newly formed Aliens, while the scattered explorers are captured alive by Aliens and implanted with embryos. Two Predators die in the ensuing battle with an Alien, while the third allies itself with the lone surviving human, Alexa "Lex" Woods (Sanaa Lathan), while making their way out of the pyramid as it is destroyed by the Predator's wrist bomb and eventually does battle with the escaped Alien Queen on the surface. The Queen is defeated by being dragged down by a water tower into the dark depths of the frozen sea, but not before she fatally wounds the last Predator. The orbiting Predator mothership uncloaks and the crew retrieves the fallen Predator. A Predator elder gives Lex a spear as a sign of respect, and then departs. Once in orbit it is revealed that an Alien Chestburster was present within the corpse, thus a Predalien hybrid is born.
Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem (2007)Edit
Set immediately after the events of the previous film, the Predalien hybrid aboard the Predator scout ship, having just separated from the mothership shown in the previous film, has grown to full adult size and sets about killing the Predators aboard the ship, causing it to crash in the small town of Gunnison, Colorado. The last surviving Predator activates a distress beacon containing a video recording of the Predalien, which is received by a veteran Predator on the Predator homeworld, who sets off towards Earth to "clean up" the infestation. When it arrives, the Predator tracks the Aliens into a section of the sewer below the town. He removes evidence of their presence as he moves along using a corrosive blue liquid and uses a laser net to try to contain the creatures, but the Aliens still manage to escape into the town above. The Predator fashions a plasma pistol from its remaining plasma caster and hunts Aliens all across town, accidentally cutting the power to the town in the process. During a confrontation with human survivors, the Predator loses its plasma pistol. The Predator then fights the Predalien singlehandedly, and the two mortally wound one another just as the US air force drops a tactical nuclear bomb on the town, incinerating both combatants along with the Predalien's warriors and hive, as well as the few remaining humans in the town. The salvaged plasma pistol is then taken to a Ms. Yutani of Yutani Corporation, foreshadowing an advancement in technology leading to the future events of previous Alien films.
Cast and crewEdit
- This table shows the recurring characters and the actors who have portrayed them throughout the franchise.
- A dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's presence in the film has not yet been announced.
- A Y indicates an appearance as a younger version of a pre-existing character.
- A C indicates a cameo appearance.
- A P indicates an appearance in onscreen photographs only.
- A D indicates an appearance in deleted scenes only.
- A V indicates a voice-only role.
- A M indicates a motion-capture only role.
|Character||Original series||Prequel series|
|Alien||Aliens||Alien³||Alien Resurrection||Prometheus|| Alien:|
|Untitled Alien: Covenant sequel|
|Arthur Dallas||Tom Skerritt||Tom SkerrittP|
| Ellen Louise Ripley|
Ripley Clone 8
|Sigourney Weaver|| Sigourney Weaver|
|Joan Lambert||Veronica Cartwright||Veronica CartwrightP|
|Samuel Brett||Harry Dean Stanton||Harry Dean StantonP|
|Gilbert Kane||John Hurt||John HurtP|
|Ash||Ian Holm||Ian HolmP|
|Dennis Parker||Yaphet Kotto||Yaphet KottoP|
|Aliens||Bolaji Badejo||Carl Toop||Tom Woodruff Jr.||Appeared|| Andrew Crawford|
Goran D. Kleut
| MU / TH / UR 6000|
"Mother / Father"
|Helen HortonV||Steven GilbornV||Lorelei KingV|
|Jones||Various animal performers|
|Engineers||Appeared|| Ian Whyte|
Michael Bishop Weyland
|Rebecca "Newt" Jorden||Carrie Henn||Danielle Edmond|
|Dwayne Hicks||Michael Biehn||Michael BiehnP|
|Elizabeth M. Shaw|| Noomi Rapace|
| David 8|
|Peter Weyland||Guy Pearce|
|Charlie Holloway||Logan Marshall-Green||Logan Marshall-GreenP|
|Janet "Danny" Daniels||Katherine Waterston|
|Tennessee "Tee" Faris||Danny McBride|
|Role||Main series||Prequel series|
|Alien||Aliens||Alien³||Alien Resurrection||Prometheus|| Alien:|
|Director||Ridley Scott||James Cameron||David Fincher||Jean-Pierre Jeunet||Ridley Scott|
|Writer(s)|| Story by:|
Ronald Shusett & Dan O'Bannon
| Story by:|
Walter Hill, David Giler & James Cameron
| Story by:|
|Joss Whedon|| Jon Spaihts|
|Story by: Jack Paglen & Michael Green|
| Screenplay by:|
| Screenplay by:|
| Screenplay by:|
David Giler, Walter Hill & Larry Ferguson
| Screenplay by:|
John Logan & Dante Harper
|Producer(s)|| Gordon Carroll|
|Gale Anne Hurd||Gordon Carroll|| Gordon Carroll|
|Ridley Scott|| Ridley Scott|
|Music(s)||Jerry Goldsmith||James Horner||Elliot Goldenthal||John Frizzell||Marc Streitenfeld||Jed Kurzel|
|Cinematography||Derek Vanlint||Adrian Biddle||Alex Thomson||Darius Khondji||Dariusz Wolski|
|Editor|| Terry Rawlings|
|Ray Lovejoy||Terry Rawlings||Hervé Schneid||Pietro Scalia|
|Production Companies||Brandywine Productions||Scott Free Productions|
|Dune Entertainment||TSG Entertainment|
|Distributor(s)||20th Century Fox|
|Running time||117 minutes||137 minutes||114 minutes||109 minutes||124 minutes||123 minutes|
|Release date||May 25, 1979||July 18, 1986||May 22, 1992||November 26, 1997||June 8, 2012||May 19, 2017|
|Film||Release date||Box office revenue|| Box office|
adjusted for inflation (2017)
|Alien||May 25, 1979||$80,931,801||$122,698,829||$203,630,630||$697,654,073||$11 million|||
|Aliens||July 18, 1986||$85,160,248||$98,156,207||$183,316,455||$415,723,565||$18 million|||
|Alien³||May 22, 1992||$55,473,545||$104,340,953||$159,814,498||$283,466,699||$50 million|||
|Alien Resurrection||November 26, 1997||$47,795,658||$113,580,410||$161,376,068||$252,265,797||$70 million|||
|Prometheus||June 8, 2012||$126,477,084||$276,877,385||$403,354,469||$443,837,732||$125 million|||
|Alien: Covenant||May 19, 2017||$74,262,031||$164,600,000||$238,862,031||n/a||$97 million|||
|Total||$Script error||$Script error||$Script error||$Script error||(E) $371 million|
| List indicator(s)
Please note that the figures in this table are not inflation adjusted. Where two different figures are quoted for box office grosses, information is taken from two different sources.
Critical and public reactionEdit
|Alien||97% (9/10 average rating) (104 reviews)||83 (22 reviews)||N/A|
|Aliens||98% (9/10 average rating) (65 reviews)||86 (10 reviews)||A|
|Alien³||46% (5.4/10 average rating) (48 reviews)||59 (20 reviews)||C|
|Alien Resurrection||54% (5.8/10 average rating) (72 reviews)||63 (21 reviews)||B−|
|Prometheus||73% (7/10 average rating) (287 reviews)||65 (42 reviews)||B|
|Alien: Covenant||66% (6.3/10 average rating) (334 reviews)||65 (52 reviews)||B|
IGN listed Alien as the thirteenth best film franchise of all time. Alien was nominated for two Academy Awards, winning for Best Visual Effects. Aliens received seven nominations, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver, and won for Best Visual Effects and Best Sound Effects. Alien³ was nominated for Best Visual Effects. Alien was also inducted into the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress for historical preservation as a film which is "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." The American Film Institute ranked Alien as the sixth most thrilling American movie and seventh-best film in the science fiction genre, and in the AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains list, Ripley was ranked eighth among the heroes, and the Alien was fourteenth among the villains.
|Award||Alien||Aliens||Alien³||Alien Resurrection||Prometheus||Alien: Covenant|
|Sound Effects Editing||Won|
"Alien Day", April 26, has become the fan celebration day for the Aliens franchise. The date derives from LV-426, the "426" converting to "4/26" or 'April 26'. On Alien Day 2016, Neill Blomkamp released new art for his concept of Alien 5, and the Audible Original audio play adaptation of Alien: Out of the Shadows was released. On Alien Day 2017, 20th Century Fox released "The Crossing" prologue short film for Alien: Covenant, and the Audible Original audio play adaptation of Alien: River of Pain was released.
Home video releasesEdit
Template:More citations needed There have been dozens of stand-alone releases of the individual films on various formats, including Betamax, VHS, Laserdisc, DVD, and Blu-ray. The multiple single releases on VHS were generally the original theatrical cuts of each film.
Laserdisc saw single releases of all theatrical versions, as well as two so-called "box sets" which only contained one film (there were two single releases, one each for Alien and Aliens) but had multiple discs and a large amount of supplemental material with a high retail price tag (around US$100). The Aliens set included a new "Special Edition" cut of the film completed by James Cameron just for this release, which was a significantly extended version of the film.
The films made their DVD debut in 1999, both as part of a boxed set (see Alien Legacy below) and as separate single-disc releases of each film (Aliens was only available in its "Special Edition" cut, not its original theatrical cut, which did not make it to DVD until the next boxed set). Following the Alien Quadrilogy set (see below), each film received individual two-disc releases containing the content of each film from that set. Since then, there have been multiple issues and reissues of the films, in both their theatrical or extended version, though some single releases include both.
In addition to the single releases, there have been seven complete box sets of the series at various points in its history. With the exception of the DVD version of the Aliens Triple Pack, each release contained all films that had come out at the time the sets were released. The seven box sets each had unique characteristics and features which were then sometimes reused in later sets or single releases in one form or another, most notably the Blu-ray Anthology, which includes a detailed archive of many previous releases, including the rare Laserdisc box sets.
- Alien Triple Pack (VHS, 1992), containing the first two films in the series and a third cassette with a 23-minute preview of the then upcoming theatrical release of Alien³. (Not to be confused with the 2008 DVD set of the same name below.)
- Alien Trilogy (VHS, 1993), a three-cassette packaging of Alien, Aliens (in its LaserDisc Special Edition cut, for the first time on another format) and Alien³.
- Alien Saga (VHS, 1997), UK boxed set with the first three films plus a "Making of Alien Resurrection" cassette. It was released again in 1998 with the Alien Resurrection film included. A Japan-exclusive Laserdisc pack containing the first three films released in 1999 also had the same name. (A planned U.S. version was canceled as DVDs were quickly taking over the much smaller domestic Laserdisc market in that country.)
- Alien Legacy (VHS/DVD, 1999), a four-volume set containing the 1991 Laserdisc "Special Edition" cut of Aliens, the theatrical versions of the other three films, and on DVD various supplemental materials that were either re-used from Laserdisc or newly created.
- Alien Quadrilogy (DVD, 2003), considered one of the most exhaustive box sets of the DVD era in terms of content and special features, was spread over nine discs: four discs (one disc each) for the theatrical and extended cuts of each film (new "2003" cuts of Alien, Alien³, and Alien Resurrection and the previously released 1991 "Special Edition" cut of Aliens), four discs containing special features specific to each film, and an extra disc of documentaries and other supplemental content.
- The films were later re-released as two-disc individual titles as part of 20th Century Fox's Collector's Series.
- Alien Triple Pack (DVD, 2008), a three-disc package including the theatrical cuts of Alien and Alien³, as well as the "Special Edition" of Aliens. This set reused the name of the 1992 VHS set (this was an unusual release in that Alien Resurrection was not included, making this the first franchise box set it had not appeared in since its release).
- Alien Anthology (Blu-ray, 2010), an exclusive six-disc release featuring two versions of each film (theatrical, and the 2003 cuts from the Alien Quadrilogy set—except for changes to the 2003 Alien³ "Workprint" version which included having some original voice actors come back to re-record poorly captured dialogue in newly inserted extended scenes, and fixed production errors on the "special edition" of Aliens) and almost all special features and supplements from the previous releases (including an archive of the special edition Laserdisc box sets with all their image galleries and other unique content). As with the Quadrilogy DVD, the two versions of each film were housed on a single disc, while the storage capacity of Blu-ray means the previous five discs of special features were included on the remaining two discs in the set, which held approximately 60 hours of bonus video content and over 12,000 still images. Most subsequent releases of the films on the Blu-ray medium are repackaged versions of the Blu-ray disks contained in this box set. A discount box set without the two additional discs of bonus features was also released.
- Alien/Aliens Dual Pack (DVD), including the theatrical cuts of both Alien and Aliens. A separate dual pack was released containing the theatrical and extended versions of Alien vs. Predator and the unrated Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem.
- Prometheus to Alien: The Evolution (Blu-ray, 2012), containing all of the Alien films, Prometheus, and a bonus material disk for Prometheus.
- All of the Alien films, including Prometheus, have been released in special Steelbook Blu-ray editions, although these do not come in a boxed set. While the Alien Steelbooks themselves contain the Blu-ray disks on their own, the Prometheus Steelbook contains both Blu-ray and Blu-ray 3D versions of the film, as well as a bonus feature Blu-ray disk with seven hours of content. With the exception of Prometheus, the films had been previously released as DVD Definitive editions, which featured Steelbook casing and contained both DVD versions of the films and a bonus feature disk.Template:Clarify
- Alien: The 35th Anniversary Edition (Blu-ray, 2014), released to mark the 35th anniversary of the release of the film, containing both a Blu-ray and a Digital HD copy, a reprint of Alien: The Illustrated Story and a series of collectible art cards containing artwork by H. R. Giger related to the film. The disk itself is the same as the respective disk on the 2010 Anthology Blu-ray release, and contains MOTHER mode, despite the lack of the required bonus disk. A reprint of the novel by Alan Dean Foster was also released, along with reprints of all other novels, with the Alien Resurrection novel available as of May 2015.
- The Alien Universe box set was released exclusively through Wal-Mart on April 18, 2017, and included four limited edition poster cards designed by the Mondo art company.
Several novelizations of each of the six films and some comic books as well as original canonical novels based on the franchise have been released.
The original novels include Alien: Out of the Shadows, Alien: Sea of Sorrows, Alien: River of Pain, marketed as the Canonical Alien Trilogy and the short story collection Aliens: Bug Hunt.
Out of the Shadows and River of Pain were adapted into audio dramas in 2016 & 2017 respectively released on the Alien Day of the respective year.
Alan Dean Foster published Alien: Covenant – Origins, a novel set between the events of Prometheus and Alien: Covenant
Dark Horse Comics published a line based on the franchise.
Aliens was adapted into four different video games: two different 1986 games titled Aliens: The Computer Game, a collection of minigames by Activision and a first-person shooter by Software Studios; as well as two different games titled Aliens, a 1987 MSX platformer by Square and a 1990 arcade shoot 'em up by Konami.
Acclaim Entertainment released three different games based on Alien³, two different run and gun platformers (one for various platforms in 1992, another for the SNES a year later) and a Game Boy adventure game in 1993; Sega also released a light gun arcade game Alien³: The Gun in 1993.
Other Alien games include Mindscape's adventure game Aliens: A Comic Book Adventure (1995), the first-person shooter Aliens Online (1998), the Game Boy Color action game Aliens: Thanatos Encounter (2001), the mobile phone game Aliens: Unleashed (2003), and the arcade game Aliens: Extermination (2006).
In (2014), Play Mechanix and Raw Thrills released Aliens: Armageddon, a rail gun first person shooter that hit arcades soon after. It has received praise, though it has also been criticized for only being four chapters long. These rail gun shooters came in two different cabinets: one featuring a large screen and assault rifles in place of laser rifles (although you use an assault rifle throughout the game regardless), the other featuring a slightly smaller screen and laser rifles.
In 2006, Sega struck a deal with Fox Licensing to release two new Alien video games on Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3. One of them, a first-person shooter by Gearbox Software, Aliens: Colonial Marines, was released on February 12, 2013, in the United States of America on Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Windows. The game is set between Aliens and Alien³, following a group of marines sent to investigate the Sulaco who wound up crash-landing on LV-426. Sega also released a Nintendo DS game Aliens Infestation in 2011.
In 2014, Sega published Alien: Isolation. Developed by The Creative Assembly the game launched on Microsoft Windows, Linux, OS X, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 platforms on October 7, 2014. It was directed by Alistair Hope and produced by Jonathan Court and Oli Smith. Part of the Alien series, the game is set in 2137, 15 years after the events of Alien and 42 years prior to Aliens. The game follows Amanda Ripley, who is investigating the disappearance of her mother, Ellen Ripley. Amanda is transferred to the space station Sevastopol to find the flight recorder of the Nostromo only to discover an Alien has terrorized the station, killing the vast majority of the crew.
The Bishop character has been the subject of literary and philosophical analysis as a high-profile android character conforming to science fiction author Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics and as a model of a compliant, potentially self-aware machine. The portrayal of androids in the Alien series—Ash in Alien, Bishop in Aliens and Alien³, and Call (Winona Ryder) in Alien Resurrection (1997)—has been studied for its implications relating to how humans deal with the presence of an "Other", as Ripley treats them with fear and suspicion, and a form of "hi-tech racism and android apartheid" is present throughout the series. This is seen as part of a larger trend of technophobia in films prior to the 1990s, with Bishop's role being particularly significant as he redeems himself at the end of Aliens, thus confounding Ripley's expectations.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 McIntee, David A. (2005). Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to the Alien and Predator Films. Telos. pp. 19–28.
- ↑ Scanlon, Paul; Michael Cross (1979). The Book of Alien. London: Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-483-4.
- ↑ "Star Beast: Developing the Story", The Beast Within: The Making of Alien.
- ↑ "Truckers in Space: Casting", The Beast Within: The Making of Alien
- ↑ Lina Badley, Film, and the Body Fantastic: Contributions to the Study of Popular Culture, Greenwood Press 1995
- ↑ Sutton, Robert. "R0BTRAIN's Bad Ass Cinema: Alien". http://www.insidepulse.com/article.php?contentid=48557. Retrieved September 4, 2006. [dead link]
- ↑ Schickel, Richard (July 28, 1986). "Help! They're Back!". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,961839,00.html.
- ↑ "Last in Space". Entertainment Weekly. May 29, 1992. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,310615,00.html. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- ↑ "David Fincher". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. http://www.sensesofcinema.com/2003/great-directors/fincher/. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- ↑ Hochman, David (December 5, 1997). "Beauties and the Beast". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,290562,00.html. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- ↑ "Joss for a minute: A brief chat with Joss Whedon". December 16, 2005. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. http://www.bullz-eye.com/mguide/interviews/2005/joss_whedon.htm. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
- ↑ Goodman, Walter. "SIGOURNEY WEAVER IN 'ALIENS'". https://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A0DE7DA1731F93BA25754C0A960948260.
- ↑ Ridley Scott (Director) (May 12, 2017). Alien: Covenant (Motion picture). Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox.
- ↑ Schaefer, Sandy (March 24, 2014). "'Wolverine 3′, 'Fantastic Four 2′, 'Taken 3′ and More Get Release Dates". ScreenRant. http://screenrant.com/wolverine-3-taken-3-fantastic-four-2-release-date/.
- ↑ McClintock, Pamela (August 1, 2012). "Summer's Studio Smackdown: From 'Men in Black 3' to 'Prometheus,' Which Franchises Will Get Another Chapter". The Hollywood Reporter (Prometheus Global Media). Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/summer-movie-franchise-avengers-snow-white-magic-mike-356583.
- ↑ Schaefer, Sandy. "'Prometheus 2′ Gets a New Writer; 2016 Release Date Likely". ScreenRant. http://screenrant.com/prometheus-2-details-release-date/.
- ↑ Fleming, Mike jr.. "Ridley Scott On 'The Martian' And Why 'Star Wars' And '2001' Sent Him To Space With 'Alien:' Toronto Q&A". http://deadline.com/2015/09/ridley-scott-the-martian-star-wars-2001-alien-blade-runner-prometheus-toronto-film-festival-1201522484/. Retrieved September 14, 2015. "Fassbender will do this one with me, and it's meant to start production in February."
- ↑ "Run, Pray, Hide: Three New TV Spots for Ridley Scott's 'Alien: Covenant'" (in en). FirstShowing.net. http://www.firstshowing.net/2017/run-pray-hide-three-new-tv-spots-for-ridley-scotts-alien-covenant/.
- ↑ Verhoeven, Beatrice (September 24, 2015). "Ridley Scott Talks Alien: Paradise Lost". TheWrap. http://www.thewrap.com/ridley-scott-reveals-prometheus-sequel-title-video/.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Orange, B. Alan (November 27, 2015). "Noomi Rapace Only Has a Small Role in 'Alien: Covenant'". TheWrap. http://movieweb.com/alien-covenant-noomi-rapace-elizabeth-shaw-prometheus-2/. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- ↑ Jaafar, Ali (December 17, 2015). "Katherine Waterston To Star In 'Alien: Covenant'". Deadline. http://deadline.com/2015/12/katherine-waterston-alien-covenant-casting-ridley-scott-1201669025/.
- ↑ Bang Showbiz (January 30, 2016). "Ridley Scott: Noomi Rapace won't be in Alien: Covenant". Yahoo! Movies. https://au.movies.yahoo.com/news/a/30691482/ridley-scott-noomi-rapace-wont-be-in-alien-covenant/.
- ↑ Fleming, Mike (June 20, 2016). "Noomi Rapace Joins 'Alien: Covenant' After All". http://deadline.com/2016/06/noomi-rapace-alien-covenant-reprises-role-1201776038/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien: Earthbound — The Alien³ sequel that never got made! — Alien: Covenant Movie News". http://www.alien-covenant.com/news/alien-earthbound---the-alien-3-sequel-that-never-got-made.
- ↑ Carroll, Larry (February 20, 2009). "Will Ripley Rise Again?". MTV Movies Blog. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2009/02/20/will-ripley-rise-again-sigourney-weaver-on-alien-saga-i-just-dont-feel-that-its-quite-finished/. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
- ↑ Vespe, Eric "Quint" (February 7, 2006). "Holy Crap! Quint interviews James Cameron!!!". Ain't It Cool News. Archived from the original on February 19, 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060219012748/http://aintitcool.com/display.cgi?id=22405.
- ↑ Davidson, Paul (January 23, 2002). "Alien vs. Predator: Battle of the Sequels". IGN. http://au.movies.ign.com/articles/317/317700p1.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ↑ "Sigourney Weaver And Ridley Scott To Team Up For Alien-Less 'Alien' Sequel?". Moviesblog.mtv.com. December 5, 2008. Archived from the original on February 16, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090216052742/http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/12/05/sigourney-weaver-and-ridley-scott-to-team-up-for-alien-less-alien-sequel/. Retrieved March 2, 2009.
- ↑ "PROMETHEUS 2 (2016): Ridley Scott drops Sequel Hints". FilmBook.com. September 28, 2014. http://film-book.com/prometheus-2-2016-ridley-scott-drops-sequel-hints/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Keith Stuart. "Sigourney Weaver hankering after fifth instalment of Alien saga". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2014/jul/25/sigourney-weaver-fifth-instalment-alien-saga.
- ↑ "Sigourney Weaver eyes new Ripley adventures at Hero Complex Film Fest". Los Angeles Times. June 2, 2014. http://herocomplex.latimes.com/movies/sigourney-weaver-eyes-new-ripley-adventures-at-hero-complex-film-fest/#/0. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Ryan, Mike (February 10, 2015). "Neill Blomkamp Says There's A 'High Possibility' He Makes An 'Alien' Movie After All". Uproxx. http://uproxx.com/movies/2015/02/neill-blomkamp-alien/.
- ↑ Douglas, Edward (February 10, 2015). "Exclusive: Might We See the Return of Ripley in a Neill Blomkamp Aliens Movie?". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/movies/news/408665-exclusive-might-we-see-the-return-of-ripley-in-a-neill-blomkamp-aliens-movie. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Neill Blomkamp Directing 'Alien'!". Bloody Disgusting. February 18, 2015. http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/3333048/neill-blomkamp-says-alien-next-film/. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- ↑ Fisher, Russ. "Neill Blomkamp's 'Alien' Will Disregard Half the Franchise to Finish Ripley's Story". Slashfilm. http://www.slashfilm.com/blomkamps-alien/. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- ↑ Suires, John. "Blomkamp's Alien Film Not Actually Erasing Post-Aliens Sequels". http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/91264/blomkamps-alien-film-not-actually-erasing-post-aliens-sequels/. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- ↑ "Why Neill Blomkamp says he's not trying to undo Alien³ and Alien Resurrection". http://www.blastr.com/2015-3-2/why-neill-blomkamp-says-hes-not-trying-undo-alien-3-and-alien-resurrection. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- ↑ "The Eventual Aliens Sequel Will Wipe Alien³ and Resurrection Off the Map". Gizmodo. http://io9.gizmodo.com/the-eventual-aliens-sequel-will-wipe-alien-3-and-resurr-1783225719. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Neill Blomkamp's 'Alien 5' Title Is a Major Spoiler". Bloody Disgusting. http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/3337109/neill-blomkamps-alien-5-title-major-spoiler/. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- ↑ "Neill Blomkamp Planning More Than One 'Alien'". Bloody Disgusting. http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/3335056/neill-blomkamp-planning-one-alien/. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- ↑ "Michael Biehn Allegedly Approached for Role in Neill Blomkamp's Alien Film". Dread Central. http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/91563/michael-biehn-allegedly-approached-role-neill-blomkamps-alien/. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- ↑ "Sharlto Copley Talks Neil Blomkamp's Alien; Would Play a Xenomorph". Dread Central. http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/94487/sharlto-copley-talks-neil-blomkamps-alien-would-play-a-xenomorph/. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- ↑ Osborn, Alex (May 20, 2015). "Bill Paxton Wants Hudson in Neill Blomkamp's Alien Sequel". IGN. http://www.ign.com/articles/2015/05/20/bill-paxton-wants-hudson-in-neill-blomkamps-alien-sequel. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien 5 filming begins in Vancouver; Neill Blomkamp assures film won't overlap with Ridley Scott's Prometheus 2". VCPost.com. June 29, 2015. http://www.vcpost.com/articles/76809/20150629/alien-5-filming-begins-vancouver-neill-blomkamp-assures-film-wont.htm. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- ↑ Nemiroff, Perri (August 18, 2015). "Rumor: 'Prometheus 2' is Delaying 'Alien 5'". Collider.com. http://collider.com/prometheus-2-delaying-alien-5/. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- ↑ Hewit, Chris (September 25, 2015). "Ridley Scott Talks Alien: Paradise Lost". Empire Online. http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=45507.
- ↑ Vejvoda, Jim (October 29, 2015). "Director Neill Blomkamp Reveals Alien 5 on Hold". IGN. http://www.ign.com/articles/2015/10/30/director-neill-blomkamp-announces-alien-5-on-hold. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- ↑ Trumbore, Dave (April 22, 2016). "Sigourney Weaver Says Neill Blomkamp's 'Alien' Movie Will Be "Worth the Wait"". Collider. http://collider.com/alien-sigourney-weaver-neill-blomkamp/. Retrieved April 23, 2016.
- ↑ Barkan, Jonathan (April 25, 2016). "Neill Blomkamp's 'Alien 5' Will See the Return of Newt!". Bloody Disgusting. http://bloody-disgusting.com/movie/3388849/neill-blomkamps-alien-5-will-see-return-newt/. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- ↑ Cox, Gordon (December 1, 2016). "Sigourney Weaver: Next 'Avatar' Scripts Are 'Many Times More Amazing' Than First One". Variety. https://variety.com/2016/film/features/sigourney-weaver-avatar-alien-1201930389/.
- ↑ Miska, Brad (January 23, 2017). "There's a "Slim Chance" We'll See Neill Blomkamp's 'Alien 5'". Bloody Disgusting. http://bloody-disgusting.com/movie/3422035/theres-slim-chance-see-neill-blomkamps-alien-5/. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- ↑ "Ridley Scott Throws Cold Water on Neill Blomkamp's Alien 5". comicbook.com. http://comicbook.com/movies/2017/04/30/ridley-scott-throws-cold-water-on-neill-blomkamps-alien-5/. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ↑ Stolworthy, Jacob (May 2, 2017). "Alien 5 is doomed as the crew of the Nostromo". Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/alien-5-covenant-sir-ridley-scott-sigourney-weaver-neill-blomkamp-sequel-prometheus-prequel-a7712676.html. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ↑ https://comicbookrumors.com/the-future-of-alien-and-versus-predator/
- ↑ "Ridley Scott planning 3 Prometheus sequels before link to Alien is made! (by Chris Picard)". September 23, 2015. https://www.scified.com/news/ridley-scott-planning-3-prometheus-sequels-before-link-to-alien-is-made. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- ↑ "Ridley Scott plans three more Prometheus films before linking to Alien". September 23, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/film/2015/sep/23/ridley-scott-three-more-prometheus-films-alien. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- ↑ "Ridley Scott: 'Alien: Covenant' Is First of 3 Films Before Linking Up With Original 'Alien' (by Pip Bulbeck)". November 26, 2015. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/ridley-scott-alien-covenant-is-844051. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- ↑ Tilly, Chris; Singer, Leigh (November 11, 2015). "Ridley Scott Says Prometheus Sequels Will Reveal Who Created Aliens". IGN. http://www.ign.com/articles/2015/11/11/ridley-scott-says-prometheus-sequels-will-reveal-who-created-aliens.
- ↑ Maddox, Garry (March 3, 2017). "Ridley Scott promises a return to Alien-style horror in Alien: Covenant". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/movies/ridley-scott-promises-a-return-to-alienstyle-horror-in-alien-covenant-20170222-guj8wk.html. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- ↑ "How Noomi Rapace Will Return for 'Alien: Covenant,' Plus: at Least Four More 'Alien' Movies in the Works". fandango.com. March 17, 2017. https://www.fandango.com/movie-news/how-noomi-rapace-will-return-for-alien-covenant-plus-at-least-four-more-alien-movies-in-the-works-752049. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- ↑ "Alien: Covenant Sequel May Not Be Titled Awakening". May 9, 2017. http://screenrant.com/alien-covenant-sequel-title-awakening/. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- ↑ "Fox Reportedly "Reassessing" Future of the 'Alien' Franchise in Wake of 'Alien: Covenant'". July 21, 2017. http://collider.com/alien-covenant-2-status-fox-ridley-scott/#sequel. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
- ↑ Alien: Covenant — Audio Commentary
- ↑ "'Alien: Covenant': 38 Things We Learned from Ridley Scott's Audio Commentary". September 1, 2017. http://collider.com/alien-covenant-trivia/#ridley-scott.
- ↑ https://variety.com/2017/film/features/stacey-snider-21st-century-fox-first-year-1202563799/
- ↑ http://screenrant.com/alien-covenant-sequel-fassbender-david-details/
- ↑ Reyes, Michael (1 August 2017). "How The Next Alien Movies Could Incorporate Ripley, According To Ridley Scott". Cinemablend.com. http://www.cinemablend.com/news/1679369/how-the-next-alien-movies-could-incorporate-ripley-according-to-ridley-scott. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
- ↑ YouTube interview of Ridley Scott from June 2017. .
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 "The Inflation Calculator". https://westegg.com/inflation/infl.cgi.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 70.5 "Alien franchise". The Numbers. http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/franchise/Alien. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- ↑ "The Inflation Calculator". https://westegg.com/inflation/.
- ↑ "Alien". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/alien/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien (1979): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/alien. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Aliens". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1000617-aliens/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Aliens (1986): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/aliens. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ 76.0 76.1 76.2 76.3 76.4 "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. http://www.cinemascore.com/. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- ↑ "Alien³". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/alien_3/. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- ↑ "Alien³ (1992): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/alien-3. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien Resurrection". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/alien_resurrection/. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
- ↑ "Alien Resurrection (1997): Reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/alien-resurrection. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Prometheus". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/prometheus_2012/. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ↑ "Prometheus (2012): Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110609003633/http://www.metacritic.com/movie/prometheus. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien: Covenant (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/alien_covenant. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
- ↑ "Alien: Covenant reviews". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/alien-covenant. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- ↑ "Top 25 Franchises of All Time: #13". IGN. December 6, 2006. http://movies.ign.com/articles/749/749678p1.html. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
- ↑ "National Film Preservation Board". National Film Preservation Board. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080829144823/http://www.loc.gov/film/filmabou.html. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
- ↑ "Films Selected to the National Film Registry, Library of Congress, 1989–2007". National Film Registry. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. https://www.loc.gov/film/titles.html. Retrieved September 6, 2008.
- ↑ Josie Griffiths. "What is Alien Day, why is it today, what special events are taking place and when is Alien: Covenant out?". The Sun (London). https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/3416698/alien-day-today-covenant/.
- ↑ James White (April 26, 2016). Alien Day: Neill Blomkamp posts new Newt art. Empire. http://www.empireonline.com/movies/alien/alien-day-neill-blomkamp-posts-new-newt-art/.
- ↑ Victoria Wollaston (April 26, 2017). You can now experience the horror of Alien: Covenant in VR. Wired. https://www.wired.co.uk/article/alien-covenant-prologue-video.
- ↑ Daly, Steve (May 8, 1992). "Alien; Aliens; Alien/Aliens Triple Pack". http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,310456,00.html. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien Trilogy [VHS]: Sigourney Weaver, Michael Biehn, Tom Skerritt, John Hurt, Carrie Henn, Paul Reiser, Lance Henriksen, Bill Paxton, William Hope, Jenette Goldstein, Al Matthews, Mark Rolston, David Fincher, James Cameron, Ridley Scott, Dan O'Bannon, David Giler, Larry Ferguson, Ronald Shusett: Movies & TV". https://www.amazon.com/dp/6302822688. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Joshua Zyber (May 1, 1999). "Alien Saga – Laserdisc Forever". http://www.mindspring.com/~laserdisc-forever/aliens.htm. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Laserdisc Details". https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0090605/laserdisc. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Sauter, Michael (June 4, 1999). "More Aliens come to VHS and DVD". http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,273583,00.html. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien Quadrilogy – DVD – IGN". http://dvd.ign.com/objects/614/614269.html. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Rewind- Alien Quadrilogy (The) (1979–1997)". http://dvdcompare.net/comparisons/film.php?fid=4361. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien Triple Pack (Alien / Aliens / Alien³): Sigourney Weaver, Michael Biehn, Tom Skerritt, John Hurt, Carrie Henn, Paul Reiser, Lance Henriksen, Bill Paxton, William Hope, Jenette Goldstein, Al Matthews, Mark Rolston, David Fincher, James Cameron, Ridley Scott, Dan O'Bannon, David Giler, Larry Ferguson, Ronald Shusett: Movies & TV". https://www.amazon.com/dp/B000REQQGQ. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ "Alien Anthology Hits Blu Ray". November 13, 2010. http://www.darkrealmfox.com/film_reviews/2010/08/09/alien-anthology-hits-blu-ray/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Tribbey, Chris. "'Alien Anthology' Boasts 60 Hours of Bonus Content". http://www.homemediamagazine.com/fox/alien-anthology-blu-ray-boasts-60-hours-bonus-content-20024.
- ↑ Sokolove, Todd. "Alien: Covenant Fan Events Announced For Alien Day 2017". http://screenrant.com/alien-covenant-day-2017/.
- ↑ "Aliens Armageddon™ – Raw Thrills, Inc.". http://rawthrills.com/games/aliens-armageddon/.
- ↑ "Aliens to spawn on next-gen systems". GameSpot. December 11, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071013060316/http://www.gamespot.com/news/6162961.html. Retrieved January 27, 2008.
- ↑ "Aliens: Colonial Marines still alive, DS edition planned". GameSpot. June 15, 2009. http://www.ign.com/games/aliens-colonial-marines/xbox-360-868803. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- ↑ "Aliens: Colonial Marines shipping Spring 2012 and will be at E3 + Teaser Trailer – Gearbox Software Forums". Gbxforums.gearboxsoftware.com. June 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110605192545/http://gbxforums.gearboxsoftware.com/showthread.php?t=122193. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- ↑ Hornshaw, Phil (February 16, 2013). "All the Ways Aliens: Colonial Marines Breaks the 'Aliens' Story". Game Front. http://www.gamefront.com/all-the-ways-aliens-colonial-marines-breaks-the-aliens-story/. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- ↑ Sharkey, Mike (February 20, 2013). "How Aliens: Colonial Marines Seriously Screws Up Alien Lore". GameSpy. http://au.pc.gamespy.com/pc/sega-alien-shooter/1227452p1.html. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- ↑ VanOrd, Kevin (July 20, 2011). "Aliens: Infestation review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20131015103257/http://www.gamespot.com/reviews/aliens-infestation-review/1900-6346310/. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- ↑ "Alien Isolation 2 "Discussed Daily" at The Creative Assembly". December 12, 2014. http://www.gamespot.com/articles/alien-isolation-2-discussed-daily-at-the-creative-/1100-6424179/. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- ↑ Dawson, Bryan. "Mortal Kombat X — How to Play Alien, Combos and Strategies" (in en). https://www.primagames.com/games/mortal-kombat-x/tips/mortal-kombat-x-how-play-alien-combos-and-strategies. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- ↑ Buttazzo, G (May 2000). R. Aurich, W. Jacobsen and G. Jatho. ed. Can a Machine Ever Become Self-Aware?. Goethe Institute, Los Angeles. pp. 45–49. ISBN 9783931321260. OCLC 950210968.
- ↑ Nishime, LeiLani (Winter 2005). "The Mulatto Cyborg: Imagining a Multiracial Future". Cinema Journal (University of Texas Press) 44 (2): 34–49. doi:10.1353/cj.2005.0011. https://doi.org/10.1353/cj.2005.0011.
- ↑ Kozlovic, Anton Karl (Spring 2004). HAL-o-phobia: Computer Horror in the Pre-1990 Popular Cinema. ISSN 1562-384X. http://biblioteca.universia.net/html_bura/ficha/params/title/hal-phobia-computer-horror-in-the-pre-1990-popular-cinema/id/1093385.html.
- ↑ Kozlovic, Anton Karl (September 2003). "Technophobic themes in pre-1990 computer films". Science as Culture 12 (3): 341–373. doi:10.1080/09505430309008. https://doi.org/10.1080/09505430309008.
- Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ellen Ripley (by Ximena Gallardo C. and C. Jason Smith, Continuum, 272 pages, 2004, ISBN 0-8264-1910-0Script error)
- The Book of Alien (by Paul Scanlon and Michael Gross, Star Books, 112 pages, 1979, ISBN 0-352-30422-7Script error, Titan Books, 2003, ISBN 1-85286-483-4Script error)
- Making of Alien Resurrection (by Andrew Murdock and Rachel Aberly, Harper Prism, 1997 ISBN 0-06-105378-3Script error)
- The Complete Aliens Companion (by Paul Sammon, Harper Prism, 1998, ISBN 0-06-105385-6Script error)
- The Alien Quartet: A Bloomsbury Movie Guide (by David Earl Thomson, Bloomsbury Publishing, 208 pages, 1999, ISBN 1-58234-030-7Script error, as The Alien Quartet (Pocket Movie Guide), 2000 ISBN 0-7475-5181-2Script error)
- Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorized Guide to the Alien and Predator Films (by David A. McIntee, Telos, 272 pages, 2005, ISBN 1-903889-94-4Script error)
- Alien Vault: The Definitive Story of the Making of The Film (By Ian Nathan) 2011, 176 pages. Includes inserts with sticker,mini posters, art and storyboards, Blueprints an other material. ISBN 9780760341124Script error
- [[[:Template:Official website/http]] Official website]